work psychology Chapter 14

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Elli
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309053
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work psychology Chapter 14
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2015-10-05 13:21:05
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Chapter 14 Organisational Culture, Creativity, and Innovation
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  1. organizational culture
    A cognitive framework consisting of attitudes, values, behavioral norms, and expectationi shared by organization members; a set of basic assumptions shared by members of an organization.
  2. toxic organizational cultures
    Organizational cultures in which people feel that they are not valued (opposite of healthy organizational cultures).
  3. healthy organizational cultures
    Organizational cultures in which people feel that they are valued (opposite of toxic organizational cultures).
  4. strong culture
    An organization in which there is widespread agreement with respect to the core elements of culture, making it possible for culture to exert major influences on the way people behave.
  5. weak culture
    An organization which there is limited agreement with respect to the core elements of culture, giving culture little influence on the way people behave.
  6. subcultures
    Cultures existing within parts of organizations rather than entirely through them.
  7. dominant culture
    The distinctive, overarching "personality" of an organization.
  8. competing values framework
    A conceptualization of organizational culture that specifies that cultures of organizations differ with respect to two sets of opposite values : ( 1 ) valuing flexibility and discretion as opposed to stability order, and control, and (2) valuing internal affairs as opposed to what's going on in the external environment.
  9. hierarchy culture
    In the competing values framework, a form of organizational culture in which organizations have an internal focus and emphasize stability and control.
  10. market culture
    In the competing values framework, a form of organizational culture in which organizations are concerned with stability and control, and are external in their orientation.
  11. clan culture
    In the competing values framework, an organization characterized by a strong internal focus along with a high degree of flexibility and discretion.
  12. adhocracy culture
    In the competing values framework, organizations that emphasize flexibility while also paying a great deal of attention to the external environment.
  13. adhocracy
    A form of organization that cuts across normal bureaucratic lines to capture opportunities, solve problems and get results.
  14. organizational memory
    Information from an organization's history that is stored through the recollections of events and their shared interpretations by key individuals in the organization who pass it along to others.
  15. symbols
    Material objects that connote meanings that extend beyond their intrinsic content.
  16. ceremonies
    Celebrations of an organization's basic values and assumptions.
  17. statements of principle
    Explicitly written statements describing the principle beliefs that guide an organization, helping to reinforce it's culture.
  18. culture clashes
    Problems resulting from attempts to merge two or more organizational cultures that are incompatible.
  19. cultural due diligence analysis
    Before a merger or acquisition is finalized, the process of analyzing the cultures of both organizations to ensure their compatibility.
  20. creativity
    The process by which individuals or teams produce novel and useful ideas.
  21. divergent thinking
    The process of reframing familiar problems in unique ways.
  22. openness to experience
    Personality variable that reflects the degree that people are interested in things that are new and different, and get exited by new ideas
  23. creativity heuristics
    Rules that people follow to help them approach tasks in novel ways.
  24. productive forgetting
    The ability to abandon unproductive ideals and temporarily put aside stubborn problems until new approaches can be considered.
  25. intrinsic task motivation
    The motivation to do work because it is interesting, engaging, or challenging in a positive way.
  26. support for creativity
    The degree to which people believe that others in their workplaces are supportive of their efforts to come up with novel ideas.
  27. innovation
    The process of making changes to something already established by introducing something new; the successful implementation of creative ideas within an organization.
  28. sustaining innovation
    A form of innovation that is incremental in nature; innovation that allows companies to approach their markets in the same manner as they have done in the past.
  29. disruptive innovation
    A form of innovation that is so extreme in nature that it changes the market in which companies operate.
  30. incremental innovation
    A slow-and-steady approach to innovation, in which companies exploit existing technology and operate under conditions in which uncertainty about the future is low.
  31. radica! innovation
    A form of innovation in which companies make quantum leaps; involves exploring new technology and operating under highly underlain conditions.
  32. manufacturer innovation
    The traditional form of innovation in which an individual or organization develops an innovation for the purpose of selling it.
  33. end-user innovation
    The form of innovation in which new ideas are inspired by the individuals who use a company's products.
  34. mission statement
    A document describing an organization's overall direction and general goals.
  35. innovation labs
    Physical facilities that are built specifically as venues for employees to use when attempting to develop innovative solutions.

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