Work psychology Chapter 15

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Work psychology Chapter 15
2015-10-05 13:45:20

Chapter 15 Organizational Structure and Design
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  1. organizational structure
    The formal configuration between individuals and groups with respect to the allocation of tasks, responsibilities, and authorities within organisations.
  2. hierarchy of authority
    The distinction between members of organizations with respect to the degree of authority they have; higher positions in an organization chart reflect higher degrees of formal authority.
  3. downsizing
    The process of redesigning organizations so as to reduce the number of employees required to meet its objectives (also known as rightsizing).
  4. span of control
    The number of subordinates in an organization who are supervised by managers.
  5. division of labor
    The practice of dividing work into specialized tasks that enable people to specialize in what they do best.
  6. line positions
    Positions in an organization in which people can make decisions related to doing basic work.
  7. staff positions
    Positions in organizations in which people make recommendations to others, but are not themselves involved in making decisions concerning the organization's day-to-day operations.
  8. decentralization
    The extent to which authority and decision making are spread throughout all levels of an organization rather than being reserved for top management (centralization).
  9. centralization
    The tendency for just a few powerful individuals or groups to hold most of the decision-making power.
  10. departmentalization
    The process of breaking up organizations into coherent units.
  11. functional organization
    The type of departmentalization based on the activities or functions performed (e.g., sales, finance).
  12. product organization
    The type of departmentalization based on the products (or product lines) produced.
  13. matrix organization
    The type of organization in which a product or project form is superimposed on a functional form.
  14. organizational design
    The process of coordinating the structural elements of organizations in the most appropriate manner.
  15. classical organizational theory
    An early approach to the study of management that focused on the most efficient way to design organizations.
  16. neoclassical organizational theory
    An attempt to improve upon the classical organizational theory, claiming that economic effectiveness is not the only goal of organizational structure, but also employee satisfaction.
  17. contingency approach to organizational design
    The contemporary approach that recognizes that no one approach to organizational design is best, but that the best design is the one that best fits with the existing environmental conditions.
  18. mechanistic organization
    An internal organizational structure that is stable in nature, where people perform jobs that do not change much over the years.
  19. organic organization
    An internal organizational structure that changes frequently, making it likely that people will have to alter the nature of the jobs they perform over the years.
  20. operating core
    In Mintzberg's framework, employees who perform the basic work related to an organization’s product or service.
  21. strategic apex
    In Mintzberg's framework, top-level executives responsible for running an entire organization.
  22. middle line
    In Mintzberg's framework, managers who transfer information between the strategic apex and the operating core. (See strategic apex and operating core.)
  23. technostructure
    In Mintzberg's framework, organizational specialists responsible for standardizing various aspects of an organization's activities.
  24. support staff
    In Mintzberg's framework, individuals who provide indirect support services to an organization.
  25. simple structure
    An organization characterized as being small and informal, with a single powerful individual, often the founding entrepreneur, who is in charge of everything.
  26. machine bureaucracy
    An organizational form in which work is highly specialized, decision making is concentrated at the top, and the work environment is not prone to change (e.g., a government office).
  27. professional bureaucracy
    Organizations (e.g., hospitals and universities) in which there are lots of rules to follow, but employees are highly skilled and free to make decisions on their own.
  28. divisional structure
    The form used by many large organizations, in which separate autonomous units are created to deal with entire product lines, freeing top management to focus on larger scale, strategic decisions.
  29. adhocracy (b)
    A highly informal, organic organization in which specialists work in teams, coordinating with each other on various projects (e.g., many software development companies).
  30. vertical integration
    The practice in which companies own their own suppliers and/or their own customers who purchase their products from them.
  31. team-based organizations
    Organizations in which autonomous work teams are organized in parallel fashion such that each performs many different steps in the work process.
  32. strategy
    Particular objectives a company has for the future and how it plans to focus its business activities so as to create and sustain value.
  33. coordination mechanisms
    Different ways of governing how things get done in an organization.
  34. intraorganizational designs
    Designs that concentrate on the arrangement of units within one organization.
  35. interorganizational designs
    Plans by which two or more organizations come together.
  36. boundary-less organization
    An organization in which chains of command are eliminated, spans of control are unlimited, and rigid departments give way to empowered teams.
  37. modular (networked) organizations
    Businesses that outsource noncore functions to other companies while focusing on their own core business.
  38. virtual organizations
    Organizations composed of a continually evolving network of companies linked together to share skills, costs, and access to markets. They form a partnership to capitalize on their existing talents, pursuing common objectives.
  39. conglomerate
    A form of organizational diversification in which an organization (usually a very large, multinational one) adds an entirely unrelated business or product to its organizational design.
  40. strategic alliance
    A type of organizational design in which two or more separate companies combine forces to develop and operate a specific business. (See mutual service consortia, joint ventures, and value-chain partnerships.)
  41. mutual service consortia
    A type of strategic alliance in which two similar companies from the same or similar industries pool their resources to receive a benefit that would be too difficult or expensive for either to obtain alone.
  42. value-chain partnerships
    Strategic alliances between companies in different industries that have complementary capabilities.
  43. joint ventures
    Strategic alliances in which several companies work together to fulfill opportunitles that  require one another's capabilities.
  44. spinoff
    An entirely new company that is separate from the original parent organization, one with its own identity, a new board of directors, and a different management team.