Chapters 1-2

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Chapters 1-2
2015-10-05 23:02:14
Chapter 1-2
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  1. the institution through which society makes and enforces its public policies
  2. all of the many goals that a government pursues in all of the many areas of human affairs in which it is involved
    public policies
  3. the power to make law and frame public policies
    legislative power
  4. the power to execute, enforce, and administer law
    executive power
  5. the power to interpret laws, to determine their meaning, and to settle disputes within society
    judicial power
  6. the body of fundamental laws setting out the principles, structures, and processes of a government
  7. a form of governement in which the leader has absolute power and authority
  8. a form of governemnt in which supreme authority rests with the people
  9. a body of people living in a defined territory who have a government with the power to make and enforce law without the consent of a higher authority
  10. having supreme power within one's own territory
  11. a form of government in which a single person holds all the power
  12. a form of government in which the power to rule is held by a small elite group
  13. a centralized government in which all governemnt powers belong to a single, central agency
    unitary government
  14. a form of government in which powerrs are divided between a central government and several local governments
    federal government
  15. basic principle of federalism; the constitutional provisions by which governmental powers are divided on a geographic basis
    division of powers
  16. a joining of several groups for a common purpose
  17. a form of government in which the executive and legislative branches are seperate, independent, and co-equal
    presidential governement
  18. a form of government in which the executive branch is made up of the prime minister, and his cabinet
    parliamentary government
  19. in a democracy, the majority of the people will be right more often than they will be wrong, and will be right more often than a single group or person
    majority rule
  20. an adjustment of oppsoing principles or systems by modifying some aspect of each
  21. a member of a state or nation who owes allegiance to it by birth or naturalization and is entitled to full rights
  22. an economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods; investments that are determined by private decision rather than by state
    free enterprise system
  23. basic principle of AMerican government that states that government is restricted in what it may do, and each person has rights that government can't take away
    limited governemnt
  24. system of government in which public policies are made by officilas who are selected by the voters and held accountable in periodic elections
    representative government
  25. Great Charter forced upon by King John of England by his barons in 1215; established that the power of the monarchy was not absolute and guaranteed trial by jury and due process for the nobility
    Magna Carta
  26. the government must act fairly and in accord with established rules in all that it does
    due process
  27. document prepared by Parliament and signed by King Charles I of England in 1628; challenged the idea of the divine right of kings and declared that even the monarch was subject to the laws of his land
    Petition of Rights
  28. document written by Parliament and agreed upon by William and Mary of ENgland in 1689, designed to prevent abuse of power by English monarchs
    English Bill of Rights
  29. a city's basic law, its constitution, a written grant of authority from a king
  30. an adjective describing a legislative body composed of two chambers
  31. an adjective used to describe a legislative body composed of one house
  32. plan proposed by Ben Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military and other purposes that was turned down by the colonies and the crown
    Albany Plan of Union
  33. representatives; members of congress who cast votes based on the wishes of their constituants
  34. basic principle of american government which asserts that people are the source of any and all governmental power and government can only exist with the constent of the governed
    popular sovereinty
  35. plan of government adopted by the continental congress after the american revolution; established firm league of friendship among the states
    Articles of Confederation
  36. formal approval, final consent to the effectiveness of a constituitonal amendment or treaty
  37. group of delegates who drafted the US constitution at the Philadelphia Convention in 1787
  38. plan presented by delegates from Virginia at the Constitutional Conventionl called for a three-branch government with a bicameral legislature in which each State's membership would be determined by its population or its financial support for the central government
    Virginia Plan
  39. plan presented as an alternative to Virginia Plan at the COnstitutional Convention; called for a unicameral legislature in which each state would be equally represented
    New Jersey Plan
  40. agreement during the COnstitutional Convention that congress should be composed of a Senate, in which States would be represented equally, and a house, in which representation would be based on a state's population
    Connecticut Compromise
  41. an agreement at the Constitutional Convention to count a slave as three-fifths of a person when determining a state's population
    Three-Fifths Compromise
  42. an agreement during the Constitutional Convention protecting the slave holders; denied Congress the power to tax the export of goods from any State, and for 20yrs the power to act on slave trade
    Commerce and Slave trade Compromise
  43. those persons who supported the ratification of the constitution in 1787-1788
  44. those persons who opposed the ratification of a constitution in 1787-1788
  45. What was the earliest known form of govenrment
    ancient Egypt 6th century bce
  46. What is the difference between government and politics
    government is the institution of acting politics
  47. 4 characteristics of a state
    • Population
    • Territory with recognized boarders
    • Sovereignty
    • government that makes laws
  48. A theory of state development in which a small group claims control over a territory adn forced the population to submit
    force theory
  49. A theory of state development in which populatino formed from primitive families, heads of the families became the government
    evolutionary theory
  50. A theory of state development in which god created the state, government is made up of those chosen by god
    Divine Right theory
  51. A theory of state development in which population in a given territory gave up power for the welfare of the people
    Social Contract Theory
  52. Purposes of government
    • establish justice
    • ensure domestic tranquility
    • provide for the common defense
    • promote the general welfare
    • secure the blessings of liberty
  53. All governments are classified according to
    • Who can participate in the governing process
    • Geograhpic distribution of government power within the state
    • Relationship between the legislative and executive branches
  54. American democracy rests on these notions
    • Recognition of the fundamental worth of every person
    • Respect for the equality of all persons
    • Faith in majority rule
    • acceptance of compromise
    • Insistence upon the widest possible degree of individual freedom
  55. What was the first and last colony
    • First - Jamestown 1607
    • Last - Savannah GA 1733
  56. When did the articles of confederation become effective
    Articles went effective as of march 1, 1781 when the last state, maryland, ratified the documents for approval
  57. weaknesses of the articles of confederation
    • congress did not have the power to tax
    • congress did not have the power to regulate trade
    • any changes needed consent from all 13 colonies