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saturated hydrocarbons or alkanes
Hydrocarbons that lack pi bonds are called
The system of rules for naming compounds
- 1. Identify the parent compound. Alkanes containing a ring are called cycloalkanes
- 2. Name the substituents, which can be either simple alkyl groups or branched alkyl groups, called complex substituents. Many common names for complex substituents are allowed according to IUPAC rules.
- 3. Number the carbon atoms of the parent and assign a locant to each substituent.
- 4. Assemble the substituents alphabetically, placing locants in front of each substituent. For identical substituents, use di, tri, tetra, penta, or hexa, which are ignored when alphabetizing.
Bicyclic naming rules
- Bicyclic compounds are named just like alkanes and cycloalkanes, with just two subtle differences:
- 1. The term “bicyclo” is used, and bracketed numbers indicate how the bridgeheads are connected.
- 2. To number the parent, travel first along the longest path connecting the bridgeheads.
Heat of combustion
is the negative of the change in enthalpy (-ΔH) associated with the complete combustion of 1 mol of alkane in the presence of oxygen
Petroleum is what complex mixture of hydrocarbons?
- These compounds are separated into fractions via distillation (separation based on differences in boiling points). The refining of crude oil separates it into many commercial products.
- • The yield of useful gasoline can be improved in two ways:
- 1. Cracking is a process by which bonds of larger alkanes are broken, producing smaller alkanes suitable for gasoline.
- 2. Reforming is a process in which straight-chain alkanes are converted into branched hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds, which exhibit less knocking during combustion.
Rotation about the carbon carbon single bonds allows a compound to adopt a variety
used to draw the various conformations of a compound
Lower in energy
are higher in energy
equivalent in energy
The difference in energy between staggered and eclipsed conformations of ethane
A conformation in which the dihedral angle between two groups is 180
The steric interaction that results when two groups in a Newman projection are separated by a dihedral angle of 60.
The increase in energy associated with a bond angle that has deviated from the preferred angle of 109.5.
The lowest energy conformation for cyclohexane, in which all bond angles are fairly close to 109.5 and all hydrogen atoms are staggered.
A conformation of cyclohexane in which all bond angles are fairly close to 109.5 and many hydrogen atoms are eclipsing each other.
For cyclohexane, the steric interactions that occur between the flagpole hydrogen atoms in a boat conformation.
A conformational change in which one chair conformation is converted into the other.
Steric interactions that occur between axial substituents in a chair conformation.
Compounds that have the same constitution but differ in the 3D arrangement of atoms.