Organic Chapter 4 vocab

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Organic Chapter 4 vocab
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2015-10-05 21:37:12
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Organic Chapter 4 vocab
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Organic Chapter 4 vocab
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  1. saturated hydrocarbons or alkanes
    Hydrocarbons that lack pi bonds are called
  2. Nomenclature
    The system of rules for naming compounds
  3. IUPAC rules
    • 1. Identify the parent compound. Alkanes containing a ring are called cycloalkanes
    • 2. Name the substituents, which can be either simple alkyl groups or branched alkyl groups, called complex substituents. Many common names for complex substituents are allowed according to IUPAC rules.
    • 3.  Number the carbon atoms of the parent and assign a locant to each substituent.
    • 4.  Assemble the substituents alphabetically, placing locants in front of each substituent. For identical substituents, use di, tri, tetra, penta, or hexa, which are ignored when alphabetizing.
  4. Bicyclic naming rules
    • Bicyclic compounds are named just like alkanes and cycloalkanes, with just two subtle differences:
    • 1.  The term “bicyclo” is used, and bracketed numbers indicate how the bridgeheads are connected.
    • 2.  To number the parent, travel first along the longest path connecting the bridgeheads.
  5. Heat of combustion
    is the negative of the change in enthalpy (-ΔH) associated with the complete combustion of 1 mol of alkane in the presence of oxygen
  6. Petroleum is what complex mixture of hydrocarbons?
    • These compounds are separated into fractions via distillation (separation based on differences in boiling points). The refining of crude oil separates it into many commercial products.
    • •  The yield of useful gasoline can be improved in two ways:
    • 1.  Cracking is a process by which  bonds of larger alkanes are broken, producing smaller alkanes suitable for gasoline.
    • 2.  Reforming is a process in which straight-chain alkanes are converted into branched hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds, which exhibit less knocking during combustion.
  7. Conformations
    Rotation about the carbon carbon single bonds allows a compound to adopt a variety
  8. Newman Projections
    used to draw the various conformations of a compound
  9. Staggered conformations
    Lower in energy
  10. Eclipsed conformations
    are higher in energy
  11. Degenerate
    equivalent in energy
  12. Torsional Strain
    The difference in energy between staggered and eclipsed conformations of ethane
  13. anti conformation
    A conformation in which the dihedral angle between two groups is 180
  14. gauche interaction
    The steric interaction that results when two groups in a Newman projection are separated by a dihedral angle of 60.
  15. angle strain
    The increase in energy associated with a bond angle that has deviated from the preferred angle of 109.5.
  16. chair conformation
    The lowest energy conformation for cyclohexane, in which all bond angles are fairly close to 109.5 and all hydrogen atoms are staggered.
  17. boat conformation
    A conformation of cyclohexane in which all bond angles are fairly close to 109.5 and many hydrogen atoms are eclipsing each other.
  18. flagpole interactions
    For cyclohexane, the steric interactions that occur between the flagpole hydrogen atoms in a boat conformation.
  19. ring flip
    A conformational change in which one chair conformation is converted into the other.
  20. 1,3-diaxial interaction
    Steric interactions that occur between axial substituents in a chair conformation.
  21. stereoisomers
    Compounds that have the same constitution but differ in the 3D arrangement of atoms.

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