Lecture 1 wk 1X2

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Lecture 1 wk 1X2
2015-10-16 01:00:01
Lecture wk 1X2
Lecture 1 wk 1X2
Lecture 1 wk 1X2
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  1. _____ are short-lived particles with an unusual number of electrons. 
    -they're produced by normal metabolic reactions, radiation, certain chemicals, and trigger reactions that destroy molecules, and can cause cancer, death of heart tissue and aging.
    free radicles
  2. 1) _____ are chemicals that nutralize free radicals.
    -Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme in the body.
    2) list 4 of them obtained thought the diet
    • antioxidants
    • 2) selenium, vitamin E & C, and carotenoids
  3. _____ is any molecule that releases H ions when dissolved in solutions.
  4. ____ are any molecule that pick up H ions or releases OH ions when dissolved in solutions
    bases like ammonia, and sodium hydroxide
  5. 1) Acidity or alkalinity is an expression of ____.
    2) ____ is a proton donor, and ____ is a proton acceptor.
    • 1)pH
    • 2) Acid, Base
  6. 1) as [H+] increases pH____, and becomes more____.
    2) as[H+] decreases pH___, and becomes more___
    • 1) decreases, acidic
    • 2) increases, basic
  7. _____are compounds that help regulate pH within a specific range.  They're composed of a weak acid and its corresponding base.
    buffers like H2CO3
  8. name 3 functional groups
    • 1) carboxyl: amino acids, sugars, and proteins
    • 2) amino: NH2, priteins
    • 3) phosphate: H2PO4
  9. name 4 classes of organic macromolecules
    • 1) carbohydrates
    • 2) lipids
    • 3) proteins
    • 4) nucleic acids/nucleotides
  10. _____ make up sugars, are used as fuels and building materials, and are essential energy for humans.  Most abundant biological molecule in nature
  11. 1)____ are one major macromolecule. single strands are called_____, 2)a simple sugars. 
    name 3 simple sugars
    • 1) carbohydrates, monosaccharide 
    • 2) glucose galactose and fructose
  12. 1) glucose+fluctose=_____
    2) glucose+galactose=_____
    3) glucose+glucose=____
    • 1)sucrose
    • 2)lactose
    • 3) maltose
  13. how does our body make simple sugars?
    produced by digestion of complex carbohydrates
  14. 1)Polysaccharides contain __-___ monosaccharides
    2)name 3 polysaccharides
    • 1) 10-100's
    • 2) gluycogen, starch, cellulose
  15. ____ is a polysaccharide used for energy storage in cells of the muscles, brain, and liver
  16. ____ is a polysaccharide energy storage in plants that is digested by humans
  17. starch
  18. ____is a polysaccharide energy storage in plants that is importand for human dietary fiver but indigestible
  19. 1) Lipids are ____: do not disolve in water.
  20. _____ are a chain of 4-24 carbon atoms classified as____ with hydrogen, and usually solid at room temperature
    saturated, carbons atoms.
  21. _____ contain C=C bonds without hydrogen
  22. ____ are the most concentrated form of energy storage
  23. Whats the primary function of tryglycerides
    energy storage, also helps w/insulation and shock absorption
  24. 1)whats the principle component of cell membrane?
    2) form ______ molecules: one end is hydrophioic and the other is hydrophobic
    • 1) phospholipids
    • 2) amphipathic
  25. -steroids are synthesized from _____
    -composed of 4 rings of carbon atoms
    -Diverse uses in the body: hormones, cell membrane components, bile salts.
    relased during ____ and by ___
    • cholesterol
    • stress, muscles
  26. lipids can signal behave like hormones-like chemical signals between cells.

    List 2 types, and some roles of one type
    • 1) eicosanoids
    •  1type= prostaglandins: play a role in blood clotting, hormone action, labor contractions, and blood vessel diameter
  27. -which macromolecule composes 50% of dry mass cells, and have structural and functional importance

    -What are they made of?
    -proteins! made of amino acids
  28. ____ are catalysts that speed up chemical reactions within cells
  29. enzymes, structure transport, hormones, receptors, movement, defense, and storage are provided by_____functions
  30. ___ are composed of a an alpha carbon bound to 3 additional important groups.
    there are 20 of them, each with different R groups
    amino acids
  31. 1) _____ are made from units of amino acids.  

    2) 3____ to make a codon for an amino acid

    3) 2 types of nucleic acids
    1) proteins

    2) nucleotides

    3) ribonucleic acid &dioxyribosnucleic acid