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_____ are short-lived particles with an unusual number of electrons.
-they're produced by normal metabolic reactions, radiation, certain chemicals, and trigger reactions that destroy molecules, and can cause cancer, death of heart tissue and aging.
1) _____ are chemicals that nutralize free radicals.
-Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme in the body.
2) list 4 of them obtained thought the diet
- 2) selenium, vitamin E & C, and carotenoids
_____ is any molecule that releases H ions when dissolved in solutions.
____ are any molecule that pick up H ions or releases OH ions when dissolved in solutions
bases like ammonia, and sodium hydroxide
1) Acidity or alkalinity is an expression of ____.
2) ____ is a proton donor, and ____ is a proton acceptor.
1) as [H+] increases pH____, and becomes more____.
2) as[H+] decreases pH___, and becomes more___
- 1) decreases, acidic
- 2) increases, basic
_____are compounds that help regulate pH within a specific range. They're composed of a weak acid and its corresponding base.
buffers like H2CO3
name 3 functional groups
- 1) carboxyl: amino acids, sugars, and proteins
- 2) amino: NH2, priteins
- 3) phosphate: H2PO4
name 4 classes of organic macromolecules
- 1) carbohydrates
- 2) lipids
- 3) proteins
- 4) nucleic acids/nucleotides
_____ make up sugars, are used as fuels and building materials, and are essential energy for humans. Most abundant biological molecule in nature
1)____ are one major macromolecule. single strands are called_____, 2)a simple sugars.
name 3 simple sugars
- 1) carbohydrates, monosaccharide
- 2) glucose galactose and fructose
- 3) maltose
how does our body make simple sugars?
produced by digestion of complex carbohydrates
1)Polysaccharides contain __-___ monosaccharides
2)name 3 polysaccharides
- 1) 10-100's
- 2) gluycogen, starch, cellulose
____ is a polysaccharide used for energy storage in cells of the muscles, brain, and liver
____ is a polysaccharide energy storage in plants that is digested by humans
____is a polysaccharide energy storage in plants that is importand for human dietary fiver but indigestible
1) Lipids are ____: do not disolve in water.
_____ are a chain of 4-24 carbon atoms classified as____ with hydrogen, and usually solid at room temperature
saturated, carbons atoms.
_____ contain C=C bonds without hydrogen
____ are the most concentrated form of energy storage
Whats the primary function of tryglycerides
energy storage, also helps w/insulation and shock absorption
1)whats the principle component of cell membrane?
2) form ______ molecules: one end is hydrophioic and the other is hydrophobic
- 1) phospholipids
- 2) amphipathic
-steroids are synthesized from _____
-composed of 4 rings of carbon atoms
-Diverse uses in the body: hormones, cell membrane components, bile salts.
relased during ____ and by ___
- stress, muscles
lipids can signal behave like hormones-like chemical signals between cells.
List 2 types, and some roles of one type
- 1) eicosanoids
- 1type= prostaglandins: play a role in blood clotting, hormone action, labor contractions, and blood vessel diameter
-which macromolecule composes 50% of dry mass cells, and have structural and functional importance
-What are they made of?
-proteins! made of amino acids
____ are catalysts that speed up chemical reactions within cells
enzymes, structure transport, hormones, receptors, movement, defense, and storage are provided by_____functions
___ are composed of a an alpha carbon bound to 3 additional important groups.
there are 20 of them, each with different R groups
1) _____ are made from units of amino acids.
2) 3____ to make a codon for an amino acid
3) 2 types of nucleic acids
3) ribonucleic acid &dioxyribosnucleic acid