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Planned or unplanned transformations in an organization's structure, technology, and/ or people.
The practice of introducing change by suggesting that an impending crisis is likely.
Change that is continuous in nature and involves no major shifts in the way an organization operates.
Radical change; major shifts involving many different levels of the organization and many different aspects of business.
Shifts in organizational activities due to forces that are external in nature, those beyond the organization's control.
The process of formulating, implementing, and evaluating decisions that enable an organization to achieve its objectives.
The process of eliminating those parts of organizations that focus on non-core sectors of the business [i.e., tasks that are peripheral to the organization), and hiring outside firms to perform these functions instead.
Short for offshore outsourcing, the practice of using outsourcing services of overseas companies.
The benefits enjoyed by an organization to the extent that its customers perceive its products or services as being superior to the products or services of another organization.
Any individual or group in whose interest an organization is run.
resistance to change
The tendency for employees to be unwilling to go along with organizational changes, based on some combination of individual and organizational barriers.
The organizational forces acting on employees, encouraging them to perform their jobs in certain ways, thereby making them resistant to change.
work group inertia
Forces within a work group that encourage employees to perform their jobs in certain ways, thereby making them resistant to change.
An organization that is successful at acquiring, cultivating, and applying knowledge that can be used to help it adapt to changes.
organizational development (OD)
A set of social science techniques designed to plan change in work settings, for purposes of enhancing the personal development of individuals and improving the effectiveness of organizational functioning.
management by objectives (MBO)
The technique by which managers and their subordinates work together to set, and then strive to attain organizational goals.
A carefully specified set of guidelines indicating exactly what needs to be done to attain desired results.
An OD technique in which questionnaires and interviews are used to collect information about issues of concern to an organization. This information is used the basis for planning organizational change.
appreciative inquiry (Al)
An OD intention that focuses attention away from an organization's shortcoming, and toward its capabilities and its potential; based on the assumption that members of organizations already know the problems they face and that they stand to benefit more by focusing on what is possible.
An OD intervention in which teams of participants work off-site to develop and implement new ways of solving organizational problems by focusing on the ineffectiveness of current methods.
quality of work life (QWL) Programs
An OD technique designed to improve organizational functioning by humanizing the workplace. making it more democratic, and involving employees in decision making.
The process of changing the way jobs are done to make them more interesting to workers.
quality circles (QCs)
An approach to improving the quality of work life, in which small groups of volunteers meet regularly to identify and solve problems related to the work they perform and the conditions under which they work.
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