geol quiz1

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oreoscene
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309133
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geol quiz1
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2015-10-13 20:14:32
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geol
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ch 2,3,10,12
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  1. The steps in the scientific method are…
    • Observe
    • Ask a question
    • Propose a hypothesis
    • Determine what else the hypothesis predicts
    • Test the hypothesis
    • Reject, modify and retest, or accept the hypothesis
  2. True or False: Hypotheses can be proven.
    False, hypotheses are never proven. Instead they are not disproven.
  3. Quantitative descriptions use _______ to describe a feature while qualitative descriptions use _______ to describe a feature.
    • Quantitative uses measurements
    • Qualitative uses words
  4. What are the two ways geologists measure orientation?
    • Strike (facing angle from true North)
    • Dip (angle from flat orientation)
  5. What is the age range that geologists measure in geology?
    Anywhere from 0 seconds to 4.5 billion years
  6. What is the principle that states that the physical laws (e.g. gravity) work the same today as they did in the past?
    The principle of uniformitarianism
  7. What are the ways geologists depict the subsurface?
    • Block Diagram
    • Cross Section
    • Stratigraphic Section
  8. Who developed the hypothesis of continental drift?
    Alfred Wegner
  9. When did he develop this hypothesis?
    1915
  10. What lines of evidence did he use to support his hypothesis?
    • Continents fit together like puzzle pieces
    • Fossil distribution
    • Mountain belts lining up
    • Permian glaciation
  11. What was the name given to the supercontinent that formed when all the continents came together?
    Pangea
  12. How long ago did that supercontinent exist?
    300 Ma – 175 Ma Ago
  13. What could Wegner not explain about continental drift?
    The mechanism of how the continents moved away from each other.
  14. What piece of evidence came later that supported continental drift?
    Magnetism in the oceanic crust showing sea floor spreading.
  15. How do plates move relative to each other along a transform boundary?
    they slide past eachother
  16. How are transform plate boundaries related to convergent and divergent plate boundaries?
    they connect any boundaries
  17. What happens to surface features that are on both sides of a transform fault?
    will become offset
  18. What is the name of the transform fault that is the boundary between the Pacific plate and the North American plate in California?
    san andreas
  19. How thick is the lithosphere at an ocean ridge?
    10km
  20. How thick is the lithosphere at a continent?
    125-200km
  21. What is the name of the weakened layer that the lithosphere moves over?
    ASthenosphere
  22. What are the three explanations of why the plates move?
    • -ridge push (divergent)
    • -slab pull (weighs restdown)
    • -convection in the mantle
  23. How quickly do plates move?
    2-10cm per yr
  24. Why is the island of Kauai no longer volcanically active?
    position on the pacific plate is no longer a hotspot
  25. What are the different ways that we explore the sea floor?
    • SONAR
    • Submersible
    • Drilling rig on boat
    • Satellites
  26. A trench being offshore is typical of which type of continental margin?
    An active continental margin
  27. A broad continental shelf being offshore is typical of which type of continental margin?
    A passive continental margin
  28. Which feature has the greatest sloping angle: continental shelf, continental slope, or continental rise?
    Continental Slope at 4-5
  29. What type of crust underlies the continental shelf?
    Continental Crust
  30. What type of crust underlies the abyssal plains?
    Oceanic Crust
  31. What seafloor features can form due to hot spot volcanism?
    • Seamounts
    • Oceanic Plateaus
  32. The temperature at which the Earth’s magnetic field is locked into a rock is called what?
    The Curie Point
  33. Magnetism on the sea floor was matched with what that we had already dated?
    Volcanic rocks on land
  34. How did we confirm the magnetism dating of the seafloor?
    By matching the dating of fossils in sediment cores at predicted areas.
  35. What is considered tectonic activity?
    • Earthquakes
    • Volcanoes
    • Mountain Building
  36. Why do earthquakes happen at plate boundaries?
    The tectonic plates are moving in different directions
  37. What are the types of plate boundaries?
    • Divergent
    • Convergent
    • Transform
  38. What type of plate boundary does this symbol represent?_^_^_^
    Convergent
  39. What are the three types of convergent plate boundaries?
    • Oceanic-Oceanic
    • Oceanic-Continental
    • Continental-Continental
  40. What type of plate boundary is where new crust is formed?
    Divergent
  41. What type of plate boundary is where crust is destroyed?
    • Convergent Oceanic-Oceanic
    • Convergent Oceanic-Continental
  42. What causes back-arc spreading?
    Trench Rollback
  43. What type of boundary has the largest magnitude earthquakes?
    Convergent
  44. What type of convergent plate boundary does not have a subduction zone?
    Continental-Continental
  45. what r the 3 different faults
    • -normal
    • -reverse
    • -strike
  46. whats the epicenter of an earthquake
    location of surface, above hypocenter
  47. what mag of earthquakes would you expect at a divergent plate boundary
    small-mod
  48. which type of plate bounary would u expect to find the deepest earthquake
    convergent/subduction
  49. what type do u expect to see convental collision
    reverse faults
  50. what r some ways that earthquakes can occur in the middle of a tectonic plate
    • -reactivation volc
    • -hot spot volc
    • -mid continent rifting volc
  51. whats the difference between bodywaves & surface waves?
    body waves travel through surface
  52. what kind of seismic wave can only travel solids
    s-waves
  53. how many seismic stations do you need data from to locate an earthquake
    @least 3
  54. an m7 quake is how many x's more powerful than an m3 quake
    each M=32. 1milli times more powerful
  55. liquefaction is caused by?
    shaking cuases could lead graines to lose grain
  56. whats events could lead to a tsunami
    • -quakes
    • -volc eruptions
    • -landslides
  57. ocean trench
    • an oceanic plate forms
    • an oceanic plate bending in order to go down the subduction zone at a convergent plate boundary.
    • volcanism at a hot spot.
  58. island arc
    • volcanism at an island arc.
    • plates pulling away from each other at a divergent plate boundary.
    • an oceanic plate bending in order to go down the subduction zone at a convergent plate boundary
  59. ocean plateu
    • volcanism at a hot spot
    • plates pulling away from each other at a divergent plate boundary.
    • an oceanic plate bending in order to go down the subduction zone at a convergent plate boundary.
  60. hot spot
    • plates pulling away from each other at a divergent plate boundary.
    • an oceanic plate bending in order to go down the subduction zone at a convergent plate boundary.
  61. sub canyon & fan
    • turbidity currents flowing down the continental slope.
    • an oceanic plate bending in order to go down the subduction zone at a convergent plate boundary.
  62. passive continental margin
    • plates pulling away from each other at a divergent plate boundary.
    • an oceanic plate bending in order to go down the subduction zone at a convergent plate boundary.
  63. back arc
    • an island arc that rose up and partially separated a small ocean basin from the main ocean. In this case there is also sea-floor spreading occuring in the small ocean basin.
    • an oceanic plate bending in order to go down the subduction zone at a convergent plate boundary.
  64. abyssal plain
    • Originally feature 8 formed by sea-floor spreading, but the very smooth surface of this feature results from a burial by a thin layer of sediment.
    • an oceanic plate bending in order to go down the subduction zone at a convergent plate boundary.
  65. mid ocean ridge
    • plates pulling away from each other at a divergent plate boundary.
    • an oceanic plate bending in order to go down the subduction zone at a convergent plate boundary.
  66. fracture zone
    is an old, inactive portion of a transform plate boundary. It appears as a discontinuity in the sea floor because it separates sea floor of two different ages. But the sections of sea floor on both sides of this feature are both moving in the same direction now.
  67. trench & island arc related
    feature 1 is created by bending of an oceanic plate going down a subduction zone, and that same plate begins to melt, once it gets deep enough, and the resulting magma rises to form feature 2.
  68. ocean plateu & hot spot
    feature 4 is created by bending of an oceanic plate going down a subduction zone, and that same plate begins to melt, once it gets deep enough, and the resulting magma rises to form feature 3.
  69. middle ridge & fracture
    feature 9 was created by two plates pulling away from each other and feature 10 is an inactive remant of a transform plate boundary that formed at a jog within feature 9
  70. Where was the oceanic plateau relative to the hot spot 20 million years ago?
    half the distance as today.
  71. What was the length of the linear chain of islands (between features 3 and 4) 20 million years ago?
    half as long as today.
  72. Which way is the plate on which the oceanic plateau rests moving relative to the hot spot at depth? Assume that on the main figure you are looking north.
    northwest
  73. How wide was the narrow sea between the volcanic islands and the western continent 20 million years ago?
    didnt exist
  74. How wide was the narrow ocean between the central and eastern continents 20 million years ago?
    narrower
  75. How wide do you think the narrow ocean between the central and eastern continents will be 20 million years into the future?
    nearly twice as wide as it is today
  76. What do you think might happen to the oceanic plateau (feature 3) 20 million years into the future?
    may collide with trench
  77. What technique is used to determine the depth to a boundary in the Earth?
    Seismic Reflection
  78. Seismic waves bend in which direction when entering a faster material?
    Towards the boundary
  79. Where is the crust the thickest?
    Underneath Mountains
  80. Where is the crust the thinnest?
    Underneath mid-ocean ridges
  81. What is the name of the boundary between the crust and the mantle?
    The Mohorovicic Discontinuity (The Moho)
  82. What happens to P-wave velocity in the asthenosphere? Why?
    It decreases due to the asthenosphere being partially melted and hence less rigid
  83. What type of seismic waves can not travel through the outer core? Why?
    • S-waves, due to the fact that the outer core is liquid
    • Recap
  84. Can p-waves from an earthquake be detected all over the surface of the Earth?
    No, there is a shadow zone on the Earth where P-waves can not be detected
  85. What is the difference between the outer core and the inner core?
    The outer core is liquid while the inner core is solid
  86. What is the composition of each layer of Earth?
    • Crust: Oceanic (Basalt) and Continental (Granite)
    • Mantle: Peridotite
    • Core: Iron
  87. Where does the heat from the Earth originally come from?
    Radioactive Decay
  88. Leftover energy from the formation of the Earth
    • What is the coolest layer of the Earth?
    • The Crust
    • _______________________
  89. How does back-arc spreading occur?
    A subducting slab steepens its angle of subduction causing trench rollback. This pulls the volcanic island arc towards the trench, thinning the oceanic crust behind the islands eventually forming a spreading center there.
  90. Seismic waves travel faster through what types of material?
    Denser or more rigid material
  91. In which areas would you expect to find the largest magnitude earthquakes?
    Subduction Zones
  92. A tsunami is caused by what?
    A displacement of water either by earthquake, volcanic eruption or landslide into water.
  93. What is the name of the most recent supercontinent that formed when all the continents came together?
    Pangea
  94. What type of fault is typically seen in convergent boundary?
    Reverse Faults
  95. Where is oceanic crust destroyed?
    Subduction Zones
  96. What type of continental margin has a trench offshore?
    Active
  97. The temperature at which the Earth's magnetic field is locked into a rock is called what?
    The Curie Point
  98. What feature forms at a divergent margin?
    A Rift Valley

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