the processes that take place over time are the cause of its form today.
ex. Grand Canyon
Survival of the fittest (spencers interpretation)
coined by Herbert Spencer
groups that are the best would take over; like wealthy European
Believed that human behavior strives for self preservation
spencer believed if everyone was wealthy and of the upper crust then things would be better
based on herbert spencers idea of survival of the fittest
theory of evolution that meant progress could only be achieved by the strong dominating the weak.
the strongest and fittest will survive and the weak will die out in terms of rich and poor.
idea that White upper crust Europeans were superior and dominant.
This lead to the practice of eugenics.
Survival of the fittest (darwins interpretation)
he meant that “offspring were fit” not who had the most offspring or who was the strongest.
those offspring that were best fitted in the environment were most likely to survive and reproduce.
comparing human society to human biology
the brain represented white wealthy europeans and everyone else acted like all the other organs working together in order to function
Psychic Unity of Mankind
similarity of human thought around the world
all human beings, regardless of culture or race, share the same basic psychological and cognitive make-up
______ came up with the idea of 3 stages of cultural evolution (ethnical periods). What are they?
Lewis Henry Morgan
Marx theory/concepts of cultural evolution progression
Primitive communism – group ownership
Feudalism – power based on land ownership
Capitalism – free market economy
Perry & Smith
idea that one civilization or people is the creator of all logical and great things which are then diffused to less civilized nation
the spread of one idea to another society
Cultures learn from one another
Hydraulic theory of organization
idea that irrigation is what ultimately leads to modern civilization because agriculture explodes
Pioneered by Franz Boas
one culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture
rules of all cultures deserve equal respect
Marvin Harris (Coined it) Boas used it
Boas argued that societies were a result of their own unique histories
Harris: Idea that each society is representative of their historical past
society is above the individual
Edward Sapir/Benjamin Whorf
different languages produce different ways of thinking
language itself focuses on how you see the world
cultures were rooted in natural settings and this could detect geographical-cultural regions of cultures
What 3 concepts did Emile Durkheim Pioneer?
the totality of beliefs and sentiments common to the average citizens of the same society
society puts pressure on you to act appropriately.
The key to keeping societies together.
external ways of thinking that guide belief and morals every
way of acting, fixed or not, capable of exercising on the individual an external constraint; or again, every way of acting which is general throughout a given society, while at the same time existing in its own right independent of its individual manifestations”
What holds society together
2 types of social solidarity
when individuals within societies are alike and self sufficient
all individuals have the same roles in society
Common with less complex societies
All individuals agree on the same thing
based on organic analogy – the idea that people have different roles in order to function
found in complex societies
Total Social Phenemenon
a social fact that is so important in the society because it surrounds all institutions of society.
ex. Potlatch, nuer, and Kula Ring in trobriands
They dictate social relations through economics, religion, ritual, gender, age, leading to rich points within their respective cultures that would ultimately change the culture if removed.
Ex. Education: leads to success, marriage, economics, politics, kinship, etc. Not every society has total social phenomenon
idea that the exchange of goods and wealth are made between groups instead of individuals.
influenced by Durkheim and Spencer
seeks to study the function of cultural institutions in relation to maintaining social order
2 types of functionalism
cultural institutions function to meet the basic physical and psychological needs of people in a society
7 basic needs
seeks to understand how cultural institutions maintain equilibrium and cohesion in a society
long term total emersion in a society; having fluency in the language; participating in the societies way of life
Difference between society and culture?
Society is a group of people functioning at the moment