Justin Stickel Science Ecology Chapter 3

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Justin Stickel Science Ecology Chapter 3
2015-10-06 23:03:58
Science Glossary Ecology

Science ecology glossary terms chapter 3
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  1. Biodiversity
    • -The number and variety of organisms found in a specific region
    • -E.G almost 5000 species of plants have been identified in Canada
    • -Each species plays an important role in maintaining sustainable ecosystems
  2. Protect
    -To guard legally from harm a species that is listed as endangered, threatened, or of special concern
  3. Biodiversity hotspot
    • -Exists in a place where there is a large number of species in a small area
    • -E.G Carolinian Canada in south-western Ontario
  4. Community
    • -All the populations of the different species that interact in a specific area or ecosystem
    • -Species depend on interacitons
  5. Dominant Species
    • -Species that are so abundant that they have the biggest biomass of any community member
    • -The removal of this species can result in a decrease in biodiversity within an ecosystem
  6. Keystone Species
    • -Greatly affects population numbers, and the health of an ecosystem
    • -Generally not abundant
    • -Can be plants or animals
    • -I.E (Sea otters, prairie dogs, black footed ferrets)
  7. Captive Breeding
    • -The breeding of rare or endangered wildlife in controlled settings to increase population size
    • -I.E (Black footed ferrets, prairie dogs)
  8. Ecosystem Engineer
    -Species that cause such dramatic changes to landscapes that they create a new ecosystem
  9. Succession
    -Series of changes in an ecosystem that occurs over time, following a dissturbance
  10. Habitat Loss
    -Occurs when events, due to natural disasters or human activities, alter a terrestrial or aquatic ecosystem so much that many species can no longer survive there.
  11. Deforestation
    -Occurs when forests are logged or cleared for human use, and are never replanted
  12. Alien Species
    • -Species introduced to new parts of a biosphere from other regions, may be released on purpose, or accidentally in shipments of food or other goods
    • -Can become invasive species
  13. Invasive Species
    -Species that can take over the habitat of native species
  14. Overexploitation
    • -Use or extraction of a resource until it is depleted
    • -E.G overfishing of Atlantic cod, over-hunting of passenger pigeons
  15. Extinction
    • -The death of all the individuals of a species
    • -May be caused by human activities, such as over-exploitation
    • -May happen naturally through background extinction, caused by slow changes in ecosystems that affect species, or through mass extinction, which occurs more quickly
  16. Biodiversity Crisis
    -The current accelerated rate of extinctions
  17. Restoration Ecology
    -The renewal of degraded destroyed ecosystems through active human intervention
  18. Reforestation
    -Regrowth of a forest, either through natural processes or through the planting of seeds or trees in an area where a forest was cut down
  19. Biocontrol
    • -The use of a species to control the population growth or spread of a speciesĀ 
    • -E.G use of a European fly to control the gypsy moth, use of bacteria spraying to control tent caterpillars & other forest pests
  20. Bioremediation
    • -The use of living organisms to clean up contaminated areas naturally
    • -E.G use of plants to absorb heavy metals from toxic soil, use of bacteria to clean up oil spills on the coast
  21. Bioagumentation
    • -The use of living organisms to add essential nutrients to depleted soils
    • -E.GĀ use of clover to add nitrogen to depleted soil