Repro2- Bovine Infertility and Pregnancy
Card Set Information
Repro2- Bovine Infertility and Pregnancy
What are the 3 general scenarios for a herd infertility problem?
"no production" of pregnancies, "low production" of pregnancies, "producing" normally but loss of pregnancies is high
What are 2 scenarios for infertility at the individual level?
inability to conceive, conception followed by loss of pregnancy
What are the 4 components of a reproductive examination on a problem breeding cow?
palpation per rectum and ultrasonography, vaginal exam, evaluation of perineal conformation, diagnostic low volume flush for uterine cytology and culture
Normal ovulatory sized follicles in a cow are ________; by definition, follicular cysts are ________ and are ________, meaning they do not form a CL within ________.
15-20mm; >20-15mm; persistent; 7-10 days
What are 2 pathologic causes of follicular cysts?
abornormal/absent LH surge, decreased circulating estrogen
What are 2 types of steroidogenically active follicular cysts?
predominant estrogen production, predominant progesterone production
With a follicular cyst that is producing estrogen, clinical signs include... (2)
nymphomania (constantly in heat), decreased milk production
With a follicular cyst that is producing progesterone, clinical signs include... (2)
prolonged interestrus interval, anestrus
Describe the treatment of a follicular cyst.
GnRH/hCG injection--(7-10days)--> PGF injection
Follicular cysts are most commonly seen in dairy cows during the ___________.
first 2 months post-partum
What is the challenge with cystic beef cows, and how have we been treating them (albeit unsuccessfully)?
often become chronically cystic and unresponsive to treatment; hCG injection --(24hr)--> transvaginal follicle aspiration +CIDR--(14 days)--> recheck and PGF injection
Luteal cysts typically arise from...
old follicular cysts that become partially lutinized.
How do you treat luteal cysts?
PGF injection; if not responsive, use same treatment as follicular cyst
A cystic CL is aka a _________; they are physiologically _________; treatment?
hollow CL; normal; no treatment necessary
What are the most common ovarian tumors in cows?
granulosa-theca cell tumors
What is the treatment and prognosis for granulosa-theca cell tumors?
benign- surgical removal; contralateral ovary should maintain reproductive potential
Inflammation of the uterine tubes and accumulation of fluid.
What are the physiological effects of salpingitis/hydrosalpinx? (3)
blocks egg and sperm/embryo transport, environment not conducive to fertilization, adhesions in the uterine tract
What are predisposing factors for salpingitis/hydrosalpinx? (5)
dystocia, RFM, postpartum metritis, first calf heifer, ET donor cow
For pyometra to develop, there MUST be a(n) __________.
function CL present
Clinical signs of pyometra. (3)
pesudopregnancy, anestrus, enlarged/pus-filled uterus
How do you treat pyometra?
PGF injection (dump shot)
Mucometra does not require a ________ to be present.
Mucometra is often secondary to __(3)__ pathologies, such as... (3)
oviductual, uterine, or cervical; salingitis, endometritis, or cervical onstruction.
What is the treatment and prognosis for mucometra?
txt is difficult b/c underlying cause is often chronic; poor prognosis due to endometrial atrophy
Uterine abscesses are secondary to...
severe endometritis, iatrogenic- AI, ET flushes
What is te treatment and prognosis for uterine abscesses?
txt difficult; prognosis poor
Idiopathic infertility in heifers is usually ________; in cows, it is usually ________.
For in vitro fertilization, oocytes are flushed and cultured until the _________, which takes about ________ in culture.
morula/blastocyst; 6-7 days
What are the 4 positive signs of pregnancy?
membane slip, aminotic vesicle, palpation of fetus, placentomes
The fetal membrane slip is palpation of the _________ and can be felt in the gravid horn _________ and _________ in the non-gravid horn.
chorioallantois; 30-35 days; after 70 days
Palpation of the AV is possible ________.
28-65 days (after 65, AV relaxes and can palpate fetus)
Palpation of placentomes is possible ___________.
65 days to term
Palpation of the fetus is possible __________.
65 days till term
What are supporting signs of pregnancy? (3)
asymmetry of uterine horns, fluctuance and resiliance of uterine horn, fremitus
Fremitus can be felt _______.
120 days to term (also after delivery or abortion)
Ultrasonography is reliable at _______.
Heartbeat can be found with US at _______.
What tests are used to endocrinologically diagnose pregnancy? (2)
PAG test (pregnancy associated glycoproteins), Biopryn test (bovine pregnancy specific protein B)
The tests for prenancy diagnosis (endocrine) are reliable on __(2)__ down to ________ if and only if the cow was previously _________.
blood or milk; 30 days; open for 90 days
Mummification occurs after formation of the _______ and _________; there must be a ________ and _________.
placenta; fetal ossification; functional CL; closed cervix
Causes of fetal mummification. (6)
BVDv, lepto, fungus, mechanical (compression of umbilical a.), uterine torsion, defective placentation
How do you treat a cow with a fetal mummy?
PGF injection of double dose 2 times for 2-3 days; if non-responsive, give PGE2 to dilate the cervix
Fetal maceration is fetal death and retention with a(n) __________; there is also ________ of the uterus.
open cervix; bacterial contamination
Treatment of cows with a macerated fetus.
unrewarding- extensive endometrial damage and infertility
Indications for epidural anesthesia. (2)
reduce straining to aid in PB manipulation, anesthesia of perineal region
Where should you administer an epidural in cattle? In small ruminants and pigs?
Cattle: sacrococcygeal space; Other: lumbosacral space
What are complications that can occur with epidurals? (2)
reduction of maternal assistance (make it difficult to pull a calf vaginally), overzealous epidural dose can cause a cow to go down
Vaginal prolapse is most common in... (2)
pluriparous cows, cows in late gestation
Describe how vaginal prolapse occurs in late gestation.
late pregnancy, there is high estrogen--> relaxation of pelvic ligaments--> large fetus increases intra-abdomina pressure--> vaginal prolapse
3 etiologies of vaginal prolapse.
late gestation, recumbency (forces organs into pelvic cavity), obesity (pelvic fat)
Describe the steps to vaginal prolapse reduction. (4)
epidural, clean prolapsed tissue, reduce edema (sugar, hypertonic saline), gentle pressure (palms, not fingers!)
What are surgical methods of fixation after repair of a vaginal prolapse? (3)
Buhner, Minchev, Winkler (cervicopexy-not really used)
Non-surgical methods of fixation after repair of vaginal prolapse in a ewe. (2)
ewe spoon, prolapse harness
What is important to remember after placement of a Buhner's suture to repair vaginal prolapse?
MUST BE REMOVED PRIOR TO PARTURITION
What is the modified Minchev technique to fix a prolapsed vagina?
rod pushed through vaginal lumen and obturator foramen to external hip; Johnson button on outside
Uterine prolapse develops directly after __________ when the ____________.
parturition; cervix is fully dilated
Etiologies of uterine prolapse. (3)
hypocalcemia, excessive straining (dystocia), excessive pulling/traction on calf or RFM
What is a huge risk associated with uterine prolapse? What are 2 other risks associated with it?
rupture of the middle uterine artery
, shock from exposure of uterine mucosa, strangulation of abdominal viscera (if contained in prolapse)
Does 1 uterine prolapse increase her likelihood of uterine prolapse in future pregnancies? What about with vaginal prolapse?
uterine: no; vaginal: yes, likely to recur
What are causes of rectovaginal tears? (2)
dystocia with overzealous fetal extraction ot incorrect positioning of the fetus
In a urine pooling animal, urine accumulates in the _________, directly caudal to the ________; this leads to a ____________.
cranial vaginal; cervix; decreased conception rate
How do you repair a urine pooling cow?
What are the components of the urethral extension surgery?
epidural, rectal tampon, speculum to visualize; roll up vaginal floor into a tube that starts at the urethral opening to the external opening, so the urine has no where to go but out
Urethral extension surgery involves a _________ incision around the __________; there is a ________ closure; it is important to check __________.
U-shaped; urethral opening; 2-layer; urethral patency
What are indications to spay a cow? (2)
prevent pregnancy/estrus in feedlot heifers because associated with reduced growth, pathologic ovaries
What are the 2 approaches to ovariectomy in a cow?
flank approach (pathologic ovaries), colpotomy (more commonly done)
What are 4 types of instruments used in colpotomy?
Willis-drop instrument, chain ecraseur, Meagher ovary flute, Kimberling-Rupp instrument
What is the method of hemostasis for ovariectomy?
crush/stretch vessels (no ligation)
During colpotomy, where do you enter with the instrument?
through vaginal wall, dorsolateral to cervix
What maternal factors are indications for C-section in a cow? (4)
small pelvic size**, intrapelvic fat, incomplete cervical dilation, uterine torsion
What fetal factors are indications for a C-section in a cow? (4)
large/dead fetus, malformation, malpositioning, fetal value>>maternal value
What production should you absolutely not use when C-section is a possibility? Why?
J-lube; if it gets into the abdomen, it causes massive peritonitis and death
What is the epidural dose for a C-section?
5-8cc of 2% lidocaine
What is the preferred approach to deliver a live calf by C-section? Why?
left flank approach; rumen acts as a visceral container
When is a right flank approach warranted for C-section?
select cases of right horn pregnancy
What is the major disadvantage to left flank (and right flank, for that matter) approach to C-section?
limited exteriorization of the uterus (
don't use this approach if calf is dead/contaminated!
What are contraindications for a left flank approach to C-section? (2)
dead/emphysematous fetus, severely contaminated uterine fluid
What are 2 types of incisions for a left flank approach to C-section?
vertical or oblique incision
When the calf is in anterior presentation, how can you use this to your advantage in left flank approach to C-section?
hock lock- use metatarsus to lock the leg in the incision- good handle
After C-section, close the uterus with an ________ pattern; 3 types are...
inverting; cushing, lembert, utrecht
What is an indication for a ventral midline approach to C-section? Why?
contaminated uterine fluid; almost entire gravid horn can be exteriorized to prevent abdominal contamination
What are ways to reduce the occurance of adhesions after C-section? (5)
absorbable suture, inverting closure pattern, buried knots, remove blood clots from abdomen, avoid using gauze on uterine surface