GU Patho Endocrine & Neuro
Card Set Information
GU Patho Endocrine & Neuro
Exam 2 Neuro & Endocrine
Causes ischemic necrosis and hypopituitarism (anterior).
Hypo- or Hyperpituitarism? Prolactinoma
Hypo- or Hyperpituitarism? Growth hormone adenoma
Hypo- or Hyperpituitarism? ACTH adenoma
Hypo- or Hyperpituitarism? Gonadotroph cell adenoma.
Hypo- or Hyperpituitarism? TSH cell adenoma
Hypo- or Hyperpituitarism? Null cell adenoma
What is a null cell adenoma?
The anterior pituitary is not functioning b/c the cells are not producing
Hypo- or Hyperpituitarism? Ischemic necrosis/Sheehan syndrome
Hypo- or Hyperpituitarism? ablation of pituitary
What needs to exist to dx SIADH? Why?
normal renal, adrenal and thyroid fxn
adrenals could be producing too much or thyroid could be encouraging too much release
What is neurogenic DI?
insufficient amounts of ADH
What is Nephrogenic DI?
inadequate response to ADH by kidneys
What's the big deal about ACTH deficiency?
It causes reduced or no cortisol secretion, which will cause decreased BGL b/c:
* increased insulin sensitivity
*decreased glycogen stores
Hypersecretion of GH during adulthood.
Hypersecretion of GH during childhood (before epiphyseal plates close).
What is Conn's Syndrome?
Excess secretion of aldosterone from adrenal cortex
Result of Conns Syndrome.
increased Na+ and H20 retention = hypervolemia & HTN
decreased K+ (d/t renal excretion)
What is virilization?
hypersecretion of androgens = development of male sex characteristics in a female
Part of brain that controls coughing, sneezing, swallowing, vomiting and the CN nuclei it contains.
Medulla oblongata (part of Myelencephalon)
Part of brain that controls respiration & the CN nuclei it contains.
Part of brain that maintains balance & posture.
Part of brain that controls reflex activies (HR, RR, BP) & the CN nuclei it contains.
Medulla oblongata (part of myelencephalon)
What is Galea aponeurotica?
covers the cranium directly under the bone
Sympathetic or Parasympathetic? Paravertebral ganglia
Sympathetic or Parasympathetic? Steady State
Sympathetic or Parasympathetic? Thoracolumbar outflow
Sympathetic or Parasympathetic? postganglionic fiber is adrenergic
Sympathetic or Parasympathetic? target organs are stimulated by NE
Sympathetic or Parasympathetic? fight or flight
Sympathetic or Parasympathetic? postganglionic fiber is cholinergic
both! (only to sweat glands for sympathetic)
Sympathetic or Parasympathetic? target organs are stimulated by ACh
Sympathetic or Parasympathetic? craniosacral outflow
Sympathetic or Parasympathetic? effects are more WIDESPREAD and PROLONGED
What is the corticobulbar
pathway responsible for?
movement of eyes, face, tongue, throat
(same as lateral cortcospinal)
For what are basal ganglia responsible?
fine-tuning motor movement
The ____________ tract of the
muscles to move.
(like when you start to fall backward)
What is the nucleus pulposus?
absorbs shock & prevents damage to vertebrae
mass of elastic fibers
Back pain is usually due to?
nucleus pulposus becomes calcified = bone on bone
_____ is the primary regulater for CNS BF.
How does CO2 regulate the blood supply to the brain?
As CO2 increases, bld supply increases to bring in more O2
As CO2 decreases, BV constrict to minimize bld supply
Why would you hyperventilate a pt with increased ICP?
to drive the CO2 down = vasoconstriction = decreased BF to brain = decreased ICP
What compensates for reduced BF in the brain?
Circle of Willis
if a BV is occluded, others dilate to compensate
The prefrontal lobe guides ________ behavior.
What is the
area? Where is it located?
speech area-helps in movements required to
What is the
area? Where is it located?
speech area- it helps you
(also helps in usage of correct words to
What causes diffuse axonal injury (DAI)?
What kind of damage is done to axons?
shaking (babies) or whiplash
shearing, tearing, or stretching of nerve fibers
What is a mild concussion?
causes attention and memory deficits
NO loss of consciousness
(I, II, III)
In what type of concussion do you lose consciousness (< 6 hrs)? Why?
Classic Cerebral (grade IV)
there is a disconnection from the brainstem and RAS
What are the ascending spinal tracts? Fxn?
spinothalamic (temp, pressure, pain, lt touch)
dorsal column (proprioception, deep pressure, vibration)
What are the descending spinal tracts and their fxns?
: sk muscle tone, voluntary movement
: balance & posture
What is proprioception?
Sense of position
Neurogenic shock causes loss of what?
Most common locations of spinal cord trauma.
cervical (1, 2, 4-7), and
T1-L2 thoracic-lumbar vertebrae
What is primary spinal cord injury?
injury d/t trauma
What is secondary spinal cord injury?
a response to primary injury (w/in few min)
-can cause edema in white matter
-w/in 4 hrs = ischemia & necrosis of cord
Cause of thrombotic stroke
thrombi formed in arteries that supply the brain or in intracranial vessels = arterial occlusions
Cause of embolic stroke.
fragments break from a thrombus formed OUTSIDE brain
Aneurysm that results from atrteriosclerotic changes ; found mostly i basilar arteries or internal carotid arteries.
Size of fusiform aneurysms
Cause of mycotic aneurysms.
arteritis caused by bacterial emboli
associated w/ bacterial endocarditis
What is a glioma?
A primary intracererbral tumor
What is an astrocytoma?
glioma that initiates from astrocytes
has lost its normal growth restraint
grows by expansion
Characteristics of oligodendroglioma?
often w/ cysts & calcifications
most in frontal and temporal lobes
h/o temporal lobe epilepsy
What is an ependymoma?
RARE glioma from ependymal cells
grow along walls of ventricles (blocks CSF pathways and increases ICP)
early signs of ependymoma.
One of first signs of meningioma.
Most commonly affected area of nerve sheath tumors.
CN VIII (also V, VII, IX)
What is syringomyelic syndrome?
inflammation of the spinal cord d/t tumor(s)
What is it called when there is invastion of a spinal cord tumor?
Most common forms of encephalitis caused by?
Herpes Simplex I
(always involves meninges)
A chronic inflammatory disease involving degeneration of CNS myelin.
Demyelination in MS is thought to result from?
a previous viral insult to the NS in a genetically susceptible person wi/ an abnormal immune response in CNS
________ result when peripheral nerves are affected.
An acquired, acute inflammatory DEMYELINATING or axonal DO caused by an immunologic response and directed at PERIPHERAL nerves.
A ______ hematoma develops from an arterial bleed of blood vessels that lie within the grooves in the skull