Nervous System

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Nervous System
2015-10-31 16:51:55
zoology nervous system
Nervous system of various organisms
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  1. Irritability
    Ability to respond to environmental stimulus
  2. Nerve signals
    Electrical signal that moves along nerves
  3. How does the sodium potassium exchange pump use active transport?
    Restores original concentration gradients for sodium and potassium
  4. Action Potential
    Involves brief reversal of polarity of cell membrane from (-) at rest to (+) during action potential
  5. Where does Action Potential happen?
    Along the length of the axon
  6. Synapse
    Small gap that separates neurons from one another
  7. In order to be transmitted, what has to cross the synapse?
  8. What do nerve impulses stimulate?
    Release into synaptic cleft
  9. Axon Knob
    Formed out of the branches that the ends of the axon are divided into
  10. Synaptic Cleft
    Fluid gap that separates the axon knob and the dendrite
  11. How do primitive animals' (cnidarians) nervous systems work without a brain?
    They perceive stimuli from environment and react to it
  12. Triploblastic animals have what kind of brain?
    Centralized brain
  13. Peripheral Nervous System
    Includes all nerve pathways of the body outside of the brain and spinal cord
  14. Central Nervous System (3)
    • Occurs along the axis of the body
    • Composed of brain and spinal cord
    • Site of information processing within the nervous system
  15. Receptors
    Detect stimuli (nose, ears, skin)
  16. Sensory Neurons
    Transmit info from specific receptors to the central nervous system
  17. Interneurons
    In CNS, integrate the sensory signals and the coordination of motor responses
  18. Motor Neurons
    Carry signals from the CNS to specific effectors
  19. Effectors
    Muscles of glands that respond to signals transmitted by nerves
  20. 3 types of Sense Receptors
    • Chemoreception
    • Mechanoreception
    • Photoreception
  21. Chemoreception (3)
    • Taste
    • Smell
    • Pheromones
  22. Mechanoreception (4)
    • Touch
    • Pain
    • Lateral line systems in fishes (detect sound waves in water)
    • Hearing
  23. Photoreception 
  24. Neuron
    The function unit of the nervous system
  25. What happens to the speed of action potential that is transmitted as the size of the axon changes?
    Larger axon means faster action potential/ Smaller axon means slower action potential
  26. What does the Myelin sheath do in terms of speed?
    Increases speed
  27. Two types of synapses
    • Electrical (less common)
    • Chemical
  28. Postsynaptic neuron
    Receives impulses
  29. Presynaptic neuron
    Brings impulses to synapse
  30. What do the vesicles in the axon knob contain?
  31. Peripheral Nervous System
    Includes all the nerve pathways of the body outside of the brain and spinal cord