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a dynamic balance between intracellular and extracellular environments.
Homeostasis is primarily controlled by the ____&____ systems.
nervous and endocrine
1)___feedback is a response that is opposite to the initial stimuli
2) give 3 examples
- 1) negative
- 2) thermostat, body temp, glucose levels
1) ____ feedback is a response that reinforces the initial stimulus.
2) give 2 examles
- 1) positive
- 2) childbirth & bood clotting
what happens to proteins when they undergo denaturing, and what are come of the causes?
- they loose their structure and unfold.
- Heat, chemicals, pH changes, dehydration, and physical abrasions can cause denaturing
organic molecules are broken apart by hydrolysis. Inserting hydrogen.
energy releasing by decomposition or breaking covalent (shared) bonds.
energy storing, usually through anabolism (synthesis reactions).
1) high pH means
2) low pH means
- 1) high basic/low acid
- 2) low basic/high acid
List 5 functional groups
- 1) hydroxyl (OH):
- 2) methyl (CH3):
- 3) carboxyl (COOH)
- 4) Amino (NH2)
- 5) phosphate (H2PO4)
List 4 methyl functional groups
fats, oils, steroids, amino acids
List 2 hydroxyl functional groups
sugars and alcohols
define functional groups
extra groups of atoms often attached to carbon chains (backbone).
give 3 examples of carboxyls
amino acids, sugars, proteins
give 2 examples of an aminos
amino acids and proteins
give 2 examples of phosphates
nucleic acids, & APT
1) what happens to a protein when denaturing
2) what causes denaturing?
1) they loose their structure and unfold to varying degrees.
2) heat, chemicals, pH changes, dehydration...
What does DNA stand for & how many nucleotides (subunit/monomer of nucleic acid/polymere) long?
- Deoxyribonucleic acid (deoxy=sugar)
- 100 mill-1billion
what does RNA stand for
- ribonucleic acid (ribo=sugar)
- 70-10,000 nucleotides long
1) What is DNA involved with?
2)what is RNA involved w?
1) cell division, reproduction, protein synthesis
2) protein synthesis coded for DNA.
What does ATP stand for?
2 forms of decomposition, and which one is often used for ATP to release energy?
dehydration & hydrolysis, hydrolysis
define exergonic, and endogonic
- exergonic=release energy-decomposition
- endergonic=store energy-synthesis
differences between RNA & DNA