Anthropology Test chapters 1-7
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What is anthropology?
the academic discipline that studies all of humanity from a broad perspective
What is cultural anthropology?
the study of contemporary and historically recent human societies and cultures
What are the objectives of cultural anthropology?
1. study and report firsthand the ways of living of particular human groups including indigenous people and peoples who live in modernized nations
2. Compare diverse cultures in the search for general principles that might explain human ways of living
3. understand how various dimensions of human life (economics, family life, religion, art, communication) relate to one another in particular cultures and in cultures generally
4. analyze the causes and consequences of the processes of globalization
5. Enhance public understanding and appreciation of cultural differences and multicultural diversity
What is fieldwork?
ethnographic research that involves observing and interviewing the members of a culture to describe their way of life
What is ethnography?
A written description of the way of life of some human population, "writing about people"
What is holistic perspective?
The assumption that any aspect of a culture is integrated with other aspects, so that no dimension of culture can be understood in isolation
What is cultural relativism?
the notion that one should not judge the behavior of other peoples using the standards of one's own culture
What is ethnocentrism?
the attitude or opinion that the morals, values, and customs of one's own culture are superior to those of other peoples
What is culture?
the socially learned knowledge and patterns of behavior shared by some group of people
How do we get culture?
by socially shared knowledge
What are 3 ways that culture is shown?
1. Materials (clothes, difference of homes in different states, things we interact with our environment)
3. Patterns of behavior
What is cultural knowledge?
information, skills, attitudes, conceptions, beliefs, values, and other mental components of culture that people socially learn during enculturation
What is patterns of behaviors?
within a single culture, the behavior most people perform when they are in certain culturally defined situation
What is enculturation?
socializing, the transmission (by means of social learning) of cultural knowledge to the next generation
ex. Parent teaching children
What is norms?
standards of propriety and appropriateness, shared ideals and/or expectations about how certain people ought to act in a given situation (common knowledge)
ex. expected behaviors at a wedding, greetings
What are values?
shared ideas or standards about the worthwhileness of goals and lifestyles,
ex. individual rights
What are the classifications/ constructions of reality?
ways in which the members of a culture divide up the natural and social world into categories, usually linguistically encoded
our reality is seen and shaped differently based on our culture, putting things into groups (ex. plants into what type of medicine they can be turned into)
What is worldview?
the way people interpret reality and events, including how they see themselves relating to the world around them, shaped by our semantic
ex. origin of good an evil, where you think you will go after death
What are symbols?
objects, behaviors, sound combinations and other phenomena whose culturally defined meanings have no necessary relationship to their inherent physical qualities
ex. interpretations of nonverbal behavior
What is unilineal evolution?
the 19th century theoretical orientation the held that all human ways of life pass through a similar sequence of staged in their development
what is historical particularism?
the theoretical orientation emphasizing that each culture is the unique product of all the influences to which it was subjected in its past, making cross-cultural generalizations questionable
What is functionalism?
theoretical orientation that analyzes cultural elements in terms of their useful effects to individuals or to the persistence of the whole society
what is participant observation?
the main technique used in conducting ethnographic fieldwork, involving living among a people and participating in their activities
What is key informant?
a member of a society who is especially knowledgeable about some subject and who supplies information to a fieldwork
What is culture shock?
the feeling of uncertainty and anxiety an individual experiences when placed in a strange cultural setting
What are the three forms of adaptation that are considered traditional indigenous lifestyles?
- 1. hunting and gathering
- 2. horticulture
- 3. pastoralism
what is hunting and gathering?
- adaptations based on the harvest of wild plants and animals, ex. the inuit
- had a nutritious diet
- work less for their food
- worked 12 hours a week
- lived in a band
- had generalized reciprocity
what is horticulture?
a method of cultivation in which hand tools powered by human muscles are used and in which land use is extensive (small scale gardening)
practice slash and burn
difference between horticulture and hunting and gathering
- families bigger in horticulture
- had a higher attachment to land
- growing lineage system
what is egalitarian?
- both men and women are generally equal
- not just women plant men do too
What is pastoralism?
herding of animals, adaptations based on tending, breeding, and harvesting the products of livestock, which are taken to seasonally available pastureland and water
- men usually herd animals
- women marry out so they do not split the herds
- make things from the animals and what they cannot make they sell
what are the two kinds of pastoralism?
- 1. nomadic
- 2. semi nomadic
what is nomadic pastoralism?
when the herders move throughout the year
What is intensive agriculture?
a system of cultivation in which plots are planted annually or semiannually, usually uses irrigation, natural fertilizers and (in the old world) plow powered by animals
- uses fertilization, irrigation, plow
- jobs are split up by specializations
- people focus on a specific job
- leads to social inequality
what is surplus?
the amount of food or other goods a worker produces in excess of the consumption of herself on himself and her or his dependents
What is reciprocity?
the transfer of goods for goods between two or more individuals or groups
what are the three types of reciprocity?
- 1. generalized reciprocity
- 2. balanced reciprocity
- 3. negative reciprocity
what is generalized reciprocity?
giving something with no expectations of things to return, ex. Giving a gift without them asking for anything Generalized reciprocity in hunting and gathering
What is balanced reciprocity?
relationship both people give and receive the same thing ex. Giving someone a Christmas gift and they give you one as well
what is negative reciprocity?
wanting to receive more out of the relationship than giving, even stealing
what are the three different forms of exchange in economics?
- 1. reciprocity
- 2. redistribution
- 3. market
what is redistribution?
the collection of goods or money from a group followed by a reallocation to the group by a central authority
having a head chief then distributing the goods to everyone equally
What is market?
exchange by means of buying and selling using money, with the ultimate goal of acquiring more money or accumulating more products or both
what is social distance?
the degee to which cultural norms specify that two individuals or groups should be helpful to, intimate with, or emotionally attached to one another
determines the type of reciprocity between two people
what is the 4 things needed in the market?
- 1. some object that serves as a medium of exchange that is money
- 2. a rate at which particular goods and services exchange for money, that is prices
- 3. the prices are determined by supply and demand
- 4. most property is privately owned.
what is emic?
collecting data by asking questions, interpreting the culture based on the open ended questions, subjective, qualitative- describing writing things down
what is etic?
being objective, looks at group like a species, quantitative, scientific, not playing a part in their culture, materialistic
what is the humanistic way of collecting data?
scientific way of collecting data?
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