BIO&251: Chapter 2 (Partly for Exam 1)

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BIO&251: Chapter 2 (Partly for Exam 1)
2015-10-11 01:14:16
BIO 251
Study Guide for Chapter 2
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  1. Explain how one uses the "Octet Rule" to predict the type of ion that will be formed by a particular atom. Be able to use the Octet Rule to make such predictions.
    • The "Octet Rule" states that elements gain or lose electrons in order to attain 8 valence electrons in the outermost shell.
    • Do practice problems from the book!
  2. Compare and Contrast: Hydrogen Bonds, Ionic Bonds, and Covalent Bonds.
  3. List seven (7) general characteristics of enzymes.
    • 1. They increase the rate of chemical reactions.
    • 2. The activation energy is reduced.
    • 3. There is no permanent change by a reaction.
    • 4. The enzymes are highly selective.
    • 5. They are sensitive to environmental conditions.
    • 6. They can be saturated.
    • 7. They can be regulated.
  4. List five (5) properties of water. How is each of your properties physiologically important?
  5. Activation Energy
    The amount of energy needed to begin a reaction.
  6. Atom
    • The smallest stable unit of matter.
    • Contain subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons.
    • Normally contain an equal number of protons and electrons.
  7. Atomic Number
    The number of protons (and also the number of electrons).
  8. Atomic Weight (Mass)
    • The number of protons + the number of electrons.
    • Example: Sodium (Atomic #=11 Atomic Mass #=23) Protons=11 Neutrons=12 Electrons=11
  9. Covalent Bond (Single and Double)
    • Single Bond: One pair of electrons shared.
    • Double Bond: Two pairs of electrons shared.
    • Non-Polar Covalent Bonds: Electrons shared equally between atoms. (N2, O2, CO2)
    • Polar Covalent Bonds: Electrons shared unequally. (Hydrogen atom bond H2O)
  10. Decomposition (Hydrolysis) Reactions
    • A chemical reaction in physiology.
    • Breaking Bonds.
    • A-B + H2O → A-H + B-OH + energy
  11. Electron
    • A subatomic particle in an atom.
    • Found in electron "shells"
    • Negative charge
    • Weight approximately 1/1836 Dalton
    • An atom has the same number of protons and electrons.
  12. Enzyme
    Enzymes catalyze specific biochemical reactions by lowering the reaction's activation energy.
  13. Chemical Equilibrium
    • At equilibrium, the rates of two opposing reactions are equal (in balance).
    • The rates of catabolism and anabolism are equal.
  14. Hydration Sphere (Sphere of Hydration)
    A cloud of water molecules that surround ionic compounds or water molecules.
  15. Ion
    • An atom or group of atoms that have an electrical charge, either positive or negative.
    • Cation: Ions with a positive (+) charge.
    • Anions: Ions with a negative (-) charge.
    • Ions have an unequal number of protons and electrons.
  16. Kinetic Energy
    • A basic energy concept.
    • The energy of motion.
  17. Neutron
    • A subatomic particle.
    • Found in the nucleus.
    • No charge (electrically neutral).
    • Weight is similar to protons.
  18. Potential Energy
    • A basic energy concept.
    • The energy of position or structure.
  19. Proton
    • A subatomic particle.
    • Found in the nucleus.
    • Positive charge.
    • Weight of approximately 1 Dalton.
  20. Solute
    A solute, in an aqueous solution, is the substance dissolved in a solvent.
  21. Solvent
    A solvent, in an aqueous solution, is the medium in which molecules of solute are dispersed.
  22. Synthesis (Dehydration) Reaction
    • A type of chemical reaction in physiology.
    • Forming new bonds.
    • A-H + B-OH + energy → A-B + H2O
  23. Valence Shell of Electrons
    • The outermost shell that determines the reactivity of the element.
    • The number of electrons in this level determines the chemical properties of the element.
  24. Molecule
    A chemical structure consisting of atoms held together by covalent bonds.
  25. Compound
    A chemical substance composed of atoms of two or more different elements.
  26. Mole
    A quantity of a substance having a weight in grams equal to the atomic  or molecular weight of that substance.
  27. Anabolism and Catabolism
    • Both are part of metabolism and are equal to each other at equilibrium.
    • Anabolism: requires an input of energy (enderogenic)
    • Catabolism: Releases energy (exerogenic)
    • Example = H2CO3 ↔ H+ + HCO3-
  28. Inorganic and Organic Compounds
    • Inorganic: Carbon and hydrogen are generally NOT primary structural ingredients.
    • Organic: Carbon and hydrogen are ALWAYS primary structural ingredients.
  29. Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Reactions
    • Hydrophilic: Compounds that interact readily with water.
    • Hydrophobic: Compounds that do NOT interact with water.