East Asia I

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cschnyer
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309331
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East Asia I
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2015-10-12 17:14:40
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  1. Yao, Shun, and Yu
    • Who/what: impossibly wise rulers in China who chose their next ruler
    • Roughly when: First Dynasty
    • Important because: Yu, founding the principle of dynastic succession, gave power to his eldest son
  2. Xia
    • Who/what: dynasty with no historical evidence
    • Roughly when: c. 2700-1600 BC
    • Important because: dynasty still asserted through the evidence of many other kingdoms
  3. Shang
    • Who/what: early Chinese society that was constantly at war with its neighbors, using the chariot to always conquer and expand
    • Roughly when: c. 1600-1045 BC
    • Important because: first historically-evidenced society in China
  4. oracle bones
    • Who/what: turtle shells or cow shoulder bones found with an ancient form of Chinese writing that were likely used for divination (to predict the future)
    • Roughly when: c. 1600-1045 BC, or Shang Dynasty
    • Important because: earliest example of Chinese writing
  5. Zhou
    • Who/what: western subsidiary kingdom of the Shang
    • Roughly when: 1045-256 BC (Western Zhou = 1045-771 BC; Eastern Zhou = 771-256 BC)
    • Important because: ultimately overthrew the Shang Dynasty/society
  6. Duke of Zhou
    • Who/what: brother of the first king of the Zhou Dynasty
    • Roughly when: c. 1045 BC (beginning of Zhou Dynasty)
    • Important because: he is a "culture hero" credited with founding the Zhou state and its major institutions
  7. Mandate of Heaven
    • Who/what: provided the legitimacy needed to conquer the Shang
    • Roughly when: c. 1045 BC (end of Shang/beginning of Zhou Dynasty)
    • Important because: became the philosophy of rulership - the dynastic cycle was at heaven's pleasure
  8. Shi
    • Who/what: warriors/scholars
    • Roughly when: Zhou Dynasty
    • Important because: part of the social structure
  9. Sunzi
    • Who/what: aka Sun Tzu, a Chinese military strategist
    • Roughly when: 500s BC
    • Important because: wrote "The Art of War"
  10. Confucius
    • Who/what: most famous Chinese philosopher
    • Roughly when: 551 - 479 BC
    • Important because: 3 principles: Zhengming (rectification of names), Ren (benevolence), and Li (ritual)
  11. Mencius
    • Who/what: Chinese philosopher
    • Roughly when: 372-289 BC
    • Important because: believed humans are fundamentally good and the problems are bad systems ↦ reformed bad systems
  12. Xunzi
    • Who/what: Chinese philosopher who believed humans are fundamentally evil and must be improved through education/self-cultivation
    • Roughly when: 312-230 BC
    • Important because: wrote a book of philosophical writings, Xunzi
  13. Mozi
    • Who/what: commoner who preached diligence and thrift
    • Roughly when: 470 - 391 BC
    • Important because: advocated "universal love" in his text, Mozi; "if everyone loved others like they loved their family, there would be no war"
  14. Daodejing/Tao Te Ching
    • Who/what: philosophical writings of Daoism
    • Roughly when: 6th century BC
    • Important because: opposite of Confucian texts, saying to follow the way that heaven wants through intuition, worship nature, and reject rationalization/reason
  15. Laozi
    • Who/what: philosopher and poet of Daoism
    • Roughly when: somewhere in 6th-4th centuries BC
    • Important because: may not even be real, but is said to have written Tao Te Ching
  16. Zhuangzi
    • Who/what: Daoist philosopher whom little is known about
    • Roughly when: c. 300s BC
    • Important because: used absurdist humor to make his points, attacking certainty and status
  17. Legalism
    • Who/what: idea that written law codes supersede morality 
    • Roughly when: 300s BC
    • Important because: adopted by the state of Qin as its main philosophy of governing
  18. Qin
    • Who/what: state in the early Chinese Empire that adopted legalism, guiding state reforms (i.e. standardizing weights/measures)
    • Roughly when: 4th-3rd century BC
    • Important because: conquered the last seven states to develop the empire of China
  19. Qin Shihuangdi
    • Who/what: Last King of the Qin State
    • Roughly when: 221 BC
    • Important because: First Chinese "Emperor"
  20. Xiongnu
    • Who/what: barbarian tribes that lived north of the first Great Wall of China
    • Roughly when: 200s BC
    • Important because: biggest threat to the Han Dynasty, eventually making peace with Liu Bang
  21. Emperor Wu of Han
    • Who/what: also known as Han Wudi, was the only capable Han Emperor after Liu Bang
    • Roughly when: 156 BC - 87 BC
    • Important because: established Confucianism as the state philosophy
  22. Sima Qian
    • Who/what: Chinese historian and author of "Records of the Grand Historian"
    • Roughly when: 139 - 86 BC
    • Important because: chose to be castrated, not executed, after being on the losing side of politics - filial piety (his father's dying wish was for him to finish his book)
  23. Wang Mang
    • Who/what: founder of the Xin Dynasty
    • Roughly when: 45 BC - 23 AD
    • Important because: tried to implement reforms to limit wealth inequality, leading to massive rebellions
  24. Three Kingdoms Period
    • Who/what: period after the Han Dynasty where the three Chinese states were Shu Han, Wei, and Wu
    • Roughly when: AD 250
    • Important because: only lasted 20 years
  25. Southern and Northern Dynasties
    • Who/what: 
    • Roughly when: 
    • Important because:
  26. Bodhidharma
    • Who/what: 
    • Roughly when: 
    • Important because:
  27. Xuanzang
    • Who/what: 
    • Roughly when: 
    • Important because:
  28. Sui
    • Who/what: 
    • Roughly when: 
    • Important because:
  29. Grand Canal
    • Who/what: 
    • Roughly when: 
    • Important because:
  30. Tang
    • Who/what: 
    • Roughly when: 
    • Important because:
  31. Tang Code
    • Who/what: 
    • Roughly when: 
    • Important because:
  32. Battle of Talas
    • Who/what: 
    • Roughly when: 
    • Important because:
  33. An Lushan
    • Who/what: 
    • Roughly when: 
    • Important because:
  34. Chulmun
    • Who/what: 
    • Roughly when: 
    • Important because:
  35. Mumun
    • Who/what: 
    • Roughly when: 
    • Important because:
  36. Tan'gun
    • Who/what: 
    • Roughly when: 
    • Important because:
  37. Wiman
    • Who/what: 
    • Roughly when: 
    • Important because:
  38. Silla
    • Who/what: 
    • Roughly when: 
    • Important because:
  39. Paekche
    • Who/what: 
    • Roughly when: 
    • Important because:
  40. Koguryo
    • Who/what: 
    • Roughly when: 
    • Important because:
  41. Kaya
    • Who/what: 
    • Roughly when: 
    • Important because:
  42. Jomon
    • Who/what: 
    • Roughly when: 
    • Important because:
  43. Yayoi
  44. Kojiki
  45. Nihon Shoki
  46. Kofun
  47. Pimiko
  48. Wa
  49. Yamato
  50. Yamatai
  51. Yoshinogari
  52. Izanagi and Izanami
  53. Amaterasu
  54. Susanoo
  55. Jimmu
  56. Daisen Kofun
  57. Shinto
  58. Torii
  59. Mimana
  60. Asuka
  61. Soga
  62. Mononobe
  63. Suiko
  64. Shotoku
  65. Horyuji
  66. Tenji
  67. Nakatomi no Kamatari
  68. Taika Reform
  69. Emishi
  70. Jinshin War
  71. Temmu
  72. Taiho Code
  73. Ritsuryo State
  74. Fujiwara
  75. Nara
  76. Heian
  77. Man'yoshu
  78. Shomu
  79. Todaiji
  80. Shosoin
  81. Koken
  82. Dokyo
  83. Tale of Genji
  84. Fujiwara no Michinaga

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