A&P2 - Test 1
Card Set Information
A&P2 - Test 1
A&P2 - Test 1
More surface area means more...?
exchange with the environment (heat, O2)
The exchange of O2 with all the cells in the body
The exchange of O2 with the lungs?
Does the body measure O2 or CO2?
This kicks in when the body is trying to return to homeostasis, it acts like a thermostat
This is like the snowball effect and it amplifies a stimulus and does not contribute to homeostasis
The overall flow and transformation of energy in an animal
What does bioenergetics determine?
how much food an animal needs and it relates to an animal's size, activity, and environment
This is how energy is allocated and used for body growth and repair, synthesis of storage material and production of gametes
Chemical signals that are secreted into the circulatory system to communicate regulatory messages within the body
Hormones reach all parts of the body but only ??? have receptors for that hormone?
What two systems coordinate communication throughout the body?
Neurotransmitters react ???, while hormones travel throughout the body
Neurotransmitters can be released by what two systems?
The target cell lies near the secreting cell in this type of hormone signaling
The target cell is also the secreting cell in this type of hormone signaling
Molecules that act over short distances, reaching target cells solely by diffusion
Name 4 local regulators
This local regulator promotes fever, inflammation, regulates platelets, and intensifies the sensation of pain
What is it called when Neurotransmitters diffuse short distances and bind to receptors on target cells
What is it called when specialized neurohormones travel to target cells via the bloodstream?
This type of hormone is secreted by exocytosis, travels freely in the bloodstream, and binds to cell-surface receptors
This type of hormone diffuses across cell membranes, travels in the bloodstream bound to transport proteins, and diffuse through the membrane of target cells
What causes a hormonal response in water-soluble hormones?
receptor initiates a signal transduction
The response to a lipid-soluble hormone is usually?
a change in gene expression
When a second hormone assists they work more effectively, this is called?
Some hormones oppose the action of others, this is called?
The inability to produce insulin?
What part of the brain coordinates the nervous system and endocrine system to work together?
This part of the pituitary gland stores and secretes hormones made in the hypothalamus
This part of the pituitary makes and releases hormones under regulation of the hypothalamus
Too little thyroid function, symptoms like weight gain, lethargy, cold intolerance
excessive production of thyroid hormone, symptoms like high temp, sweating, weight loss, irritability, high blood pressure
The adrenal glands secrete what hormone that is regulated by negative feedback?
glucocorticoids (cortisol AKA hydrocortisone)
Name the two sections of the adrenal glands
The adrenal cortex hormones have fast or slow effects?
The adrenal medulla hormones have fast of slow effects on the body?
fast acting - fight or flight
This is any type of harmful stress that may be damaging.
This is helpful, everyday stress that prepares us to meet challenges.
Exocrine cells of the pancreas are arranged in clusters called
The acini of the pancreas produce what?
Glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide are secreted by what?
Pancreatic Islets (Islets of Langerhans)
refers to all of the chemical reactions taking place in the body
Reactions that break down complex molecules into simpler ones are
Reactions that combine simple molecules to make complex molecules are
This is the energy molecule that couples the two types (anabolic and catabolic) of reactions.
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
Pumping uphill to allow it to flow downhill
Glucose not needed immediately is stored as
The process that creates glycogen
When ATP is needed for body activities, stored glycogen is broken down by a process called
The hormone that helps to decrease adiposity (body fat mass).
The hormone that stimulates food intake
the hormone that inhibits food intake?
inorganic elements (not carbon based) that play important roles in maintaining a healthy body
nutrients required in small amounts to maintain growth and normal metabolism. Most cannot be synthesized by the body and must be consumed in foods.
In chemical digestion, the process of ??? splits bonds in molecules with the addition of water
Name the 3 salivary glands
Salivary amylase converts polysaccharides to disaccharides