Exam 2 part 2

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Exam 2 part 2
2015-10-10 15:55:40
Bio 130

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  1. What are the two ways for cellular respiration?
    Aerobic Respirations and Fermentation
  2. Process by which living cells obtain energy from organic molecules.
    Cellular respiration
  3. What is the primary aim for respiration?
    ATP and NADH
  4. What method of resp. uses O2 and put sout CO2?
  5. What is mainly used in aerobic resp.?
    Glucose ( Glucose Metabolism)
  6. What are the four metabolic pathways?
    Glycolysis, Breakdown of Pyrivate, and Oxidative Phosphorylation.
  7. What is the first stage of cellular resp.?
    Glycolysis ( can occur w/ or w/o O2)
  8. Is Glycolysis the same for all organisms?
  9. What are the steps for Glycolysis?
    Ten steps in three phases.
  10. What are the three phases in Glycolysis?
    Energy investment, cleavage, and energy liberation
  11. What happens in the energy investment phase?
    steps 1-3, 2ATO hydrolyzed to create fructose-1,6 bisphosphate
  12. What happens in the cleavage phase?
    steps 4-5 6C broken into two 3 Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
  13. What happens in the energy liberation phase?
    steps 6-10 2 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate broken down into two pyuvate molecules. THis produces 2 NADH and 4ATP
  14. What is the net yield of Glycolysis?
  15. What is the second stage of cellular respiration?
    Breakdown of pyruvate
  16. In eukararyotes where is the pyruvate transported?
    Mitochondrial Matrix
  17. Molecule of CO2 removed from each pyruvate and Remaining is?
    attached to CoA to make Acetyl CoA
  18. What is the yeild to stage 2 on cellular resp?
    1NADH per pyruvate.
  19. Stage 3 of cellular resp.?
    Metabolic cycles
  20. Stage 3: Acetyl is removed from acetyl CoA and attached to oxalocetate to form?
    Citrate (Citric Acid)
  21. What is released in the stage 3?
    2CO2, 1 ATP, 3NADH, and 1 FADH2
  22. In stage 3 what is regenerated to start the cycle again?
  23. What happens in the 4th stage of cellular resp?
    High energy e- removed from NADH and FADH2 to make ATP
  24. In stage 4 of cell resp: what causes the phosphorlation?
    ATP synthase
  25. Oxidation by the Electron Transport Chain (ETC). Protein complexes and small organic molecules embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Accept and donate electrons in a linear manner in a series of redox reactions. Movement of electrons generates an H+ electrochemical gradient (proton-motive force). This provides energy for the next step
    synthesizing ATP
  26. Lipid bilayer of inner mitochondrial membrane is relatively impermeable to H+. Protons can only pass through
    ATP synthase
  27. What is the yield in the 4th stage of cellular resp?
    30-40 ATP molecules/glucose
  28. What other molecules can be used for the cellular resp in place of glucose?
    Carbs, proteins, and fats
  29. fron enviroments that lack O2 what are the two strategies that can be used?
    Use substance other than O2 as final electron acceptor in electron transport chain or Produce ATP only via substrate-level phosphorylation
  30. What does ecoli use for cell. resp?
  31. is the breakdown of organic molecules without net oxidation?
  32. In fermentation Many organisms can only use O2 as final electron acceptor, so under anaerobic conditions, they need a different way to produce ATP, like using glycolysis. But glycolysis uses up NAD+ and makes too much NADH under anaerobic conditions (dangerous situation).
    Muscles reduce pyruvate into lactate and yest makes ethanol
  33. What happens in photosythesis?
    CO2 is reduced and H2O oxidized and is an endergonic rxn
  34. regions on the surface of the Earth and atmosphere where living organisms exist. Largely driven by the photosynthetic power of green plants
  35. What are the tropic levels?
    Heterotroph, auto troph, and photoautotroph
  36. Must eat food to sustain life
  37. Makes organic molecules from inorganic sources.
  38. Use light as a source of energy. Green plants, algae, cyanobacteria
  39. Majority of photosynthesis occurs internally in leaves, in the
  40. Carbon dioxide enters and oxygen exits leaf through pores called
  41. What is the atatomy of the chloroplast?
    Outer and Inner membrane separated by an inner membrane. Thylakoid membrane, Granum and the fluid filled area called stroma
  42. Conatins the pigment molecules, forms thylakoids, and enclose the thylakoid lumen.
    Thylakoid membrane
  43. A Stack of thylakoids
  44. Fluid filled region between thylakoid membrane and inner membrane
  45. Two stages of photosynthesis
    Light Rxns and Calvin cycle
  46. This stage of photosynthesis Use light energy, Take place in thylakoid membranes, Produce ATP, NADPH and O2
    Light Rxns
  47. What do the light rxns yeild?
    ATP, NADPH and O2
  48. This stage of photosynthesis Occurs in stroma and Uses ATP and NADPH to incorporate CO2 into carbohydrate
    Calvin cylce
  49. Wavelengths that are absorbed by different pigments
    Absorbtion spectrum
  50. Rate of photosynthesis by whole plant at specific wavelengths
    Action spectrum
  51. Captured light energy can be transferred to other molecules to produce energy intermediate molecules for
    Cellular work
  52. Thylakoid membranes of chloroplast contain two distinct complexes of molecules
    Photosystem 1 and Photosystem 2
  53. Of the two photosystems which where discovered first?
    Photosystem 1
  54. What are the steps in the Photosytem 2?
    the initial step, excited E- go from PS2 to PS1. Water oxidizes into 02 and H+. released the energy in electron transport chain. That energy is used to make the H+ electrochem. gradient.
  55. What are the steps in photo system 1?
    Primary role is to make NADPH. Addition of H+ to NADP+ contributes to the H+ gradient by de[leting H+ from the stroma.
  56. Achieved by chemiosmotic mechanism called photophosphorylation or Driven by flow of H+ from thylakoid lumen into stroma via
    ATP synthesi in chloroplasts
  57. What are the 3 ways H+ gradient is generated?
    in thylakoid lumen by splitting of water, by ETC pumping H+ into lumen, and in stroma from formation of NADPH.
  58. How is O2 produced in photsynthesis?
    Produced in the thylakoid by oxidation of H2O by PS2. Two electrons transferred to P680* molecules.
  59. How is NADPH produced in Photosynthesis?
    Stroma from high energy electrons that startin PS2 and are boosted in PS1. NADP+ + 2e- + H+ -> NADPH
  60. How is ATP produced in photosynthesis?
    Produced in stroma by ATP synthase using the. H+ electrochemical gradient
  61. What are the two electron flows in the electron gradient?
    Produced in stroma by ATP synthase using the H+ electrochemical gradient
  62. In this electron flow Electrons begin at PSII and eventually transfer to NADPH, a linear process. Produces both ATP and NADPH in equal amounts
  63. In this electron flow Electrons begin at PSII and eventually transfer to NADPH, a linear process. Produces both ATP and NADPH in equal amounts
    Cyclic photophosphorylation (cyclic electron flow)
  64. What are the two main components in the photosystem 2?
    Light-harvesting complex (or antenna complex) and reaction center
  65. this component of photosystem 2 directlty absorbs photons and energy transferred via resonance energy transfer.
    Light-harvesting complex
  66. THis component of photosystem 2 P680 -> P680* ( rather unstable for moves quick). Electrons transfered to primary electron acceptor and captured. Water is oxidized to replace the electron on p680* producing o2 gas in the process
    Reaction center
  67. In this cycle CO2 incorporated into carbohydrates, requires a massive input og=f eneergy and produces glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
    Calvin cycle
  68. In the calvin cycle for every 6CO2 inc. what must be used?
    18 ATO and 12 NADPH
  69. What is the product from the calvin cycle?
    glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) then later used to make glucose
  70. What are the three phases of the calvin cycle?
    Carbon fixation, Reduction and carbohydrate production, and regeneration of RuBP.
  71. In this phase of the calvin cycle CO2 incorporated into RuBP using rubisco. Reaction product is a six-carbon intermediate that splits into two 3-phosphoglycerate molecules (3PG)
    Phase 1 carbon fixation
  72. in this phase of the calvin cycle ATP is used to convert 3PG into 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (1,3-BPG). NADPH electrons reduce it to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P). 6 CO2 ? 12 G3P. Only 2 G3P molecules used for carbohydrates. 10 G3P molecules must be used for regeneration of RuBP
    Phase 2 redction and carbohydrate production
  73. in this phase of the calvin cycle ? 10 G3P are converted into 6 RuBP using 6 ATP
    Phase 3 regeneration of RuBP
  74. What conditions can effect the calvin cycle?
    Light intensity, Temperature, Water availability
  75. Rubisco functions as a carboxylase. RuBP + CO2 ? 2 3PG. C3 plants make 3PG
  76. These plants Evolved a mechanism to minimize respiration and make oxalocetate in the first step of carbon fixation.
    c4 plants
  77. 90% of plants are
    c3 plants
  78. Some C4 plants separate processes using time. ? CO2 enters and is converted to malate. Stomata close during the day to conserve water. Oxaloacetate converted to malate. Malate broken down into CO2 to drive Calvin cycle during the day
    Crassulacean Acid Metabolism aka CAM plants
  79. Cell communication is the process of cells detecting and responding to signals in the
    Extracellular enviroment
  80. By changing the conformationof a receptor, signals lead to a responce inside?
    The cell
  81. Signlas that cause cell death is?
  82. Why do cells need signals?
    To respond to a changing environment and to communicate with eachother
  83. This in plants allows multiple cells to change shape, bending the plant in coordinated way?
  84. Signaling molecule in phototropism?
  85. What are the signals relayed between cells?
    Direct intercellular signaling, Contact-dependent signaling, Autocrine signaling, Paracrine signaling, and Endocrine signaling
  86. Cell junctions allow signaling molecules to pass from one cell to another
    Direct intercellular signaling
  87. Molecules bound to the surface of cells serve as signals to cells coming in contact with them
    Contact-dependent signaling
  88. Cells secrete signaling molecules that bind to their own cell surface or similar neighboring cells
    Autocrine signaling
  89. Signal does not affect originating cell, but does influence nearby cells
    Paracrine signaling
  90. Signals called hormones travel long distances and are usually longer lasting in effect
    Endocrine signaling
  91. What are the three stages of cell signaling?
    Receptor activation, signal transduction, and cellular responce.
  92. What are the different cellular responces change?
    Enzyme activity, structural proteins, and gene expression
  93. Binds noncovalently to receptor with high specificity. It is the signaling molecule.
  94. 3 kinds of surface receptors.
    Enzyme-linked receptors, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), and Ligand-gated ion channels
  95. Found in all living species. Extracellular domain binds signal . Intracellular domain becomes functional catalyst. Most are protein kinases
    Enzyme-linked receptors
  96. Found in all eukaryotes, common in animals. 7 transmembrane segments. Activated receptor binds to G protein. Releases GDP and binds GTP instead. GTP causes G protein to dissociate. a subunit and ?/? dimer interact with other proteins in a signaling pathway
    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR)
  97. Plant and animal cells. Ligand binding causes ion channels to open and ions to flow through the membrane. In animals, these transmit synaptic signals between neurons and muscles or between two neurons
    Ligand-gated ion channels
  98. These recpetors are inside the cell
    Intracellular recptors
  99. the signaling molecule binds to cell surface receptor and the conformation change stimulates a signal transduction pathway.
    produces the cellular responce
  100. Category of enzyme-linked receptors found in animals and Recognize various types of signaling molecules
    Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
  101. Signals binding to cell surface are ?first messenger?. Many signal transduction pathways lead to production of second messengers
    G-Protein-coupled receptors
  102. Second messengers relay what?
    signals inside the cells
  103. Examples og second messengers?
    cAMP, CA+, and Diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol triphosphate (IP3)
  104. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate . Signal binding to GPCR activates G protein to bind GTP, causing dissociation, freeing a subunit. a subunit binds to adenylyl cyclase enzyme, stimulating synthesis of cAMP
    Signal transduction via cAMP
  105. cAMP nactivates what?
    Protein Kinase A (PKA)
  106. PKA does what?
    phosphorylate specific cellular proteins.
  107. PKA targets include?
    Enzymes, structural proteins, and transcription factors.