Western Civ I (Week 6)

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Western Civ I (Week 6)
2015-10-11 17:13:41
Western Civilization

Western Civ I (Week 6)
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  1. Late Antquity - The Germanic Kingdoms
    • Barbarians
    • Two famous kingdoms - THE FRANKS & THE ANGLES AND SAXONS
  2. Barbarians
    • Germanic people that settled in Western Roman Empire
    • the good, the bad, the ugly
  3. Battle of Adrianople (378)
    • Romans vs Visigothic (Germanic Barbarians)
    • Romans lose
    • led to the Sack of Rome (410) pillaged
  4. The Huns
    • Fierce Nomadic Fighters
    • Frightened the Germanics
    • Eastern Emperor payed Tribute to them
  5. ATTILA (443-454)
    • Most important Leader of the Huns
    • Attacked Gaul and Italy
    • Leo the Great (Pope) convinced Attila not to destroy city
    • Plague struck and Eastern Roman forces led to Hunnic withdrawn
    • Hunnic Empire collapsed when Attila died
  6. The End of Roman Rule in the Latin West
    • Romulus Augustulus (r. 475-76) last, young Roman Emperor (desposed of by Germanic General)
    • Roman Empire in West ceased to exist
    • settled in what is now France and Germany
    • Clovis (r. 481-511), first major ruler and founder of Merovingian dynasty
    raided Britannia, now England
  9. Late Antiquity – The Eastern Roman Empire
    • Greek-speaking
    • Capital CONSTANTINOPLE "city of Constantine"
    • "New Rome"
  10. Emperor Justinian and Wife Theodora (r. 527-565)
    • J considered T “Partner in Counsel.”
    • legislation Codex Iustinianus, or “Justinian’s Code.”
    • religion Persecuted "heretics" and banished Paganism
    • shut down Academy in Athens
    • domed church HAGIA SOPHIA means "Holy Wisdom"
    • sought to recreate universal Roman Empire
  11. Mosaics
    • small bits of stone or glass combined to make nified image
    • Justinian and His Retinue
    • Theodora and Her Retinue
    • vibrant colors
  12. Late Antiquity – The Papacy & the Latin Church
    • the office of the bishop of Rome (pope)
    • a successor of St Peter the Apostle
    • one of 5 "patriarchal" bishops
    • not a master, but a “first among equals.”
  13. GREGORY THE GREAT (r. 590-604)
    • Most significant Pope of Late Antiquity
    • “Servant of the servants of God”
    • supervised papal lands, Patrimony of St. Peter
    • loyal subject of Eastern Emperor
    • Lombards (barbarians) were problematic during his reign
  14. Monasticism
    • means “solitary asceticism (self-denial, fasting, abstinence) as a way of life away from the world.”
    • monks: hermits (monks who lived alone) and communal monks (who lived in community)
  15. Benedict of Nursia (ca. 480-543)
    • founded Benedictine monasticism
    • first was a hermit with a holy life, then became abbot
    • established monasteries (ie Monte Cassino)
    • wrote The Rule for his monks
  16. The Spread of Roman Christianity in Western Europe
    • spread to Germanic Kingdoms
    • Merovingian King Clovis of The Franks Converted
    • Ireland Missionary Patrick converted the Celts
    • Gregory the Great had Augustine of Canterbury convert the Angles
    • Catholic Christianiaty
  17. The Early Middle Ages – Islam
  18. The Arabian Peninsula
    • home of the Arabs
    • pastoral nomads (on move with livestock)
    • the Eastern Roman Empire and Persia were north
  19. Arabian religion
    • originally animistic and pagan
    • Mecca - primary commercial and religuos center
    • Ka’ba - cube shaped building in Mecca, pilgrimage site with many idols, constructed by braham and his son Ishmael
  20. The Prophet Muhammad (570-632)
    • Prophet of Islam
    • Born in Mecca
    • Angel Gabriel spoke to Muhammad
    • and told him to worship God (Allah) alone
    • ummah, the “community of the faithful.”
    • Khadijah was his wife and first convert
    • Hijrah (622) - Muhammad left for Medina, considered year one for Muslims
    • jihad - “striving in the ways of God,” often by warfare
    • Marched on Mecca with 10000 men and converted city
  21. Islam
    • means “submission to God.”
    • “Muslim” "one who submits"
  22. “Five Pillars of Islam.”
    • “There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is His Prophet.”
    • pray five times daily facing toward Mecca
    • celebration of Ramadan, a month of fasting for Muslims
    • Muslims also practiced almsgiving and had to go on pilgrimage to Mecca
  23. MOSQUE
    • Muslims place of worship
    • prayers on Friday
    • Dome of the Rock (687-692) in Jerusalem (where Muhammad ascended to heaven)
  24. QURAN,
    • in Arabic means “recitation.”
    • collection of the many revelations that Muhammad received during his lifetime
    • “absolute monotheism” God is one and only one
    • Jews and Christians are referred to as the “People of
    • the Book,”
    • Jesus consider “apostle of God" not son
    • like Chirstians a final judgment on the Last Day
    • Muslims ought to make war on “infidels.”
    • Men could have 4 wives
  25. The Islamic Conquests
    • ummah wanted to defeat the “enemies of God.”
    • Overran Persian Emplire, Antioch, Alexandria, and Carthage
    • Captured places became known as “under the Crescent,”
    • Attempted to go to Western Europe
    • Arabs were great fighters
    • Roman and Persian miliatary exhasted by warfare and became easy prey for Muslims
    • Allowed Jews and Christians to continue practice, but they paid tax
  26. Government in the Islamic World
    • Islamic spirtual and political leaders
    • first caliphs were part of Muhammad’s inner circle
    • Ali (r. 656-661) - assassinated and death is root of Sunni- Shiite division
    • Terrorists of ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria) hope to violently recreate the Islamic “caliphate” of old
  28. The Culture of Islamic Civilization
    • Islamic was "the" great civilization of the Early Middle Ages, not Western Europe
    • Knowledgeable about Scientific matters
    • Contributed to astronomy and natural Science
    • Developed arithmetic and algebra
    • Literary and Poetic traditions, used Paper and created Libraries
  29. The Early Middle Ages – The Byzantine Empire
    • This is the Eastern Roman Empire greatly transformed (fights with Persians, Invasions by Muslims, Plague and Natural Disasters)
    • Byzantium was the original name of Costantinople
    • Strong military and navy with GREEK FIRE (sprayed fire on ships)
  30. The Iconoclastic Controversy
    • ICONS were very popular devotional images that had been a traditional means of worship among Christians.
    • Destroyed by emperor, he thought God had judged them
    • Second Council of Nicaea declared icons condemed, good for iconodules, not iconoclasm
    • Icons rebounded Feast of Orthodoxy
  31. The Early Middle Ages – Western Europe
  32. Italy Early Middle Ages
    • not "one Italy"
    • Split between Lombards, Byzantine Empire and the papacy
    • Papal States in Central Italy. Rome was capital.
  33. British Isles Middle Ages
    • Several Kingdoms
    • Celts lived there "natives" in north and west
    • Angles and the Saxons lived in the southeast
    • "loved" Christianity
  34. Venerable Bede (673-735)
    • Benedictine monk
    • Wrote The Ecclesiastical History of the English People (731)
  35. scriptori
    • writing workshops, where monks did much of their studying and thinking
    • produced copies of the Bible
  36. Spain Middle Ages
    under Muslim control, tho population was mostly Christian and some Jews
  37. Kingdom of the Franks
    • Catholic
    • Ruled by the Merovingian dynasty, until the Carolingians
  38. CHARLES MARTEL (d. 741)
    • first Carolingian
    • responsible for halting the Muslim advance into western Europe
    • Battle of Poitiers (732-33)
  39. CHARLEMAGNE (r. 768-814)
    • aka Charles the Great, King/Emperor Charlemagne
    • most significant Carolingian ruler
    • Christian and loyal son of the Roman Church
    • promoted learning
    • Ruled at first as king of the Franks (capital Aachen)
    • issed laws through “capitularies.”
    • Sent out Counts and missi dominici to watch the Counts
    • Crowned by Pope and goverened Roman Empire
  40. The Disintegration of the Carolingian Empire
    • Charlemagne died in 814
    • Empire divided by three grandsons, fragmented
    • growing regional, linguistic, and ethnic differences
    • VIKINGS - “Northmen,” of Danish and Norwegian origins raided their shores