Psychology test 2 Nagmita
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Psychology test 2 Nagmita
social psychology personality
College level psychology, YSU Dr. Fry's class
What approach emphasizes self-actualization?
Phenomenological approach emphasizes
Theoretical constructs are
they are abstraction and not directly observed
Involves the intense study of the individual to uncover traits unique to the person
allows researchers to see if several variables share enough in common so that they can se summarized with a single label
what are "The Big Five"
openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism.
According to Mischel, the "personality coefficient" refers to
the surprisingly low correlation between a typical measure of personality and behavior
Fishbein and Ajzen argues that to increase the accuracy with which a personality measure predicts a behavior, the behavior should be....
behavior should measured in several different ways and not just in one way
Bem and allen found that
some people are more prone to trait like consistency than others
According to Freud, the id operates according to
The pleasure principle operates the
wishing and fantasizing for food when hungry is
Id when one is hungry
anal stage is metaphorically the
Girls experience what during Phallic stage
Penis envy occurs when
Not being able to recall the sexual want for the opposite sexed parent is called
Rogers believed that there is a natural tendency to express ourselves and become out true selves
The kind of person you are is different from the person whom u want to be
actual self and ideal self
When focused in on the immediate, subjective experience of the person, it's referred to as
Phenomenological approach- focus is on the_________ experience
Behaviorist argue that to explain personality psychologist should focus on
the reinforcers and punishers in the external environments- told to focus on by.. to..
What approach emphasizes the continuity and consistency in behavior across situations and over time.
Trait, over time and across situation emphasizes the what
The approach that's the common core, foundation of someone's personality.
Approach that you are unique and should work towards that.
What occurs when prejudicial attitudes are expressed in behavior?
When making attributions, what cause is a cause of behavior that is based on environmental factors?
What states that we tend to overemphasize dispositional causes and underemphasize situational causes of others' actions?
Fundamental attribution error
"That would never happen to me" is an example of what attrubution
Reduces the change that a victim will get help from a crowd
Diffusion of responsibility
One of the reasons a masked ball and costume parties are exciting is because of the effects of
The fact that we constantly try to make sense out of the behavior of ourselves and others is related to which concept?
The study of motivation consists of
the "why" of the human behavior
what is homeostasis?
keeping things balanced
What are primary motives?
Sexual wants and aggression, Libido and Thanatos
What brain structure is important for eating
What is bulimia & anorexia nervosa
eat then puke; starving with over exercize
What are the characteristics of high need for achievement
Desire to excel to master difficult challenges, do job faster, work harder
What happens when extrinsic rewards are given for an intrinsically rewarding activity?
grow not to like something that you once liked
What is the order of Maslow's need hierarchy
Biological- food and water;
Safety- security and comfort;
Belongingness- to be loved and love;
Esteem- need for confidence;
Self-Actualization- have meaningful goals
Canon- Bard theory of emotion
"I ran and was afraid at the same time"- processing of emotion and physical response occur at the same time.
James- Lange theory of emotion
"I ran then I was afraid"- environment causes physical change, leading to behavior, leading to emotion.
Schacter- Singer theory of emotion/ cognitive appraisal theory of emotion
joint effort of physical arousal and what we think.
Aggressive behavior as defined is
Intentional harm to others
What is the facial feedback theory of emotion?
Changing facial expressions can actually change someone's emotions.
How something is said may be more important than the actual meaning of the words spoken. The "how it is said" refers to
The meaning of staring depends on
What are theoretical constructs
Inferred concepts in traits used to explain behavior
What is nomothetic approach?
Comparing people to people, similarities in traits and their varying degrees
What is the purpose of Factor Analysis?
To summarize several variables with a single label
What are introverts and extroverts
shy, reserved; outgoing, social
Describe each of the "big five" factors.
Openness- imaginatice, curious
Conscientiousness- organized, preserving
Extroversion- socialize, energetic
Agreeableness- sympathetic, kind
What was the point of Funder and Ozer study?
Situational factors don't account for anymore variation in peoples' behavior than traits.
Two major categories of instincts according to Freud?
Libido- life and sexual
The id operates according to the
Instincts/ pleasure principal
What is the Id?
The instincts> pleasure principle that reduces tension; primary process- confusing fantasy with reality; wish-fulfillment- imagining what u need.
The motive behind almost everything, tension reduction.
Confusing fantasy for reality
imagining what u need
What is Ego?
Reality, tries to obtain what will satisfy the instinct. Reality Principle- separate fantasy from reality. Secondary Process- cognitive and intellectual skills
Separates fantasy form reality
Rational skills that enable us to get though our daily lives and survive, cognitive and intellectual skills.
What is Superego
Morals. Conscience-knowing and feeling guilt. Ego-ideal- knowing and feeling pride. Introjection- accepting and indentifying the value system taught by parents.
Knowing and feeling guilty when a person has done wrong
Knowing and feeling pride when a person has done right
accepting and identifying the value system set by parents
The largest portion of the mind operation beyond our awareness is the
what a person is currently thinking
What a person could bring to their awareness, you know something, you're just not thinking about it currently.
thoughts and feelings kept oiut of awareness
Oral stage of develpoment
metaphor for love, gullible and needy, verbally hurt someone.
Oral Incorporative stage
Are gullible and needy for love, symbolically achieved through mouth stimulation like smoking or eating.
Oral Sadistic Stage
Using words to harm other
Anal stage of develpoment
Creative metaphor, neat and controled or wasteful and disorderly
Anal Retentive Fixation
An adult who is neat and controlled
Anal Expulsive Fixation
A person who is rebellious towards authority and irresponsible.
Phallic Stage of development
Curious about genitals and identity. Boy falling in love with mother, girl with father.
Boy falls in love with mother and wants to get rid of father
Boy in love with mother fearing that father will hurt him for the mother.
Stop trying to compete for mother, and try to be more like father for mother's attention.
Girl's want for a penis and the societal benefits that accompany it
Latency stage of development
Non sexual, buddy stage of development. Superego is developed
Genital stage of development
In this stage of development, you learn to love someone other than yourself and do valued work in the community.
Substitute & symbolic forms of instinctual gratification are called
substituting an object which symbolically represents the object which would satisfy an instinct
Yelling at the dog(substitute) instead of your boss(symbolic) is an example of
a form of displacement in which the symbolic activity is valued by the culture
Becoming a surgeon to satisfy the aggressive instinct is an example of
preventing an unpleasant thought from breaking into awareness.
Forgetting an embarrassing statement from an argument is an example of
Shifting your attention away from a threat and ignore what upsets you.
Not applying the dangers of smoking to yourself is an example of
Placing a thought or feeling of your own onto someone else.
The statement "They hate me" is an example of
Expressing the opposite of what you feel
an excuse or reason to justify an action.
"Everybody does it" is an example of
movement towards being ourselves
Conditional positive regard
Accepting someone if they meet certain standards
Behaviorists argue that to explain personality psychologists should focus on
the external and environmental influences
3 Components of attutudes
Affective- feeling; Behavior; Cognitive-thoughts and beliefs
Roger's subjective experience
immediate experience, free to choose our own actions.
Behavior controlled by stimulus cues in the environment, like the boss shows up so u act like you're working
Unconditional positive regard
Loving someone as they are
The importance of first impressions
Internal Cause of Behavior
A person's personality effected behavior
External Cause of behavior
Environmental cause of behavior, test was easy so I got an A.
Fundamental Attribution Error
Internal or personality explanations for another's behavior are preferred.
Assigning internal causes for good outcomes and external causes for bad outcomes.
Blaming the victim helps us feel safer
Belief in a just world
people get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
having 2 identities, ex being a parent and a college student.
Conflicting demands within a role, loving and punishing a child as a parent.
A change in behavior brought to you by real or imagined group preassure
The desire to be correct ________ Conformity
Desire to be liked _______ Conformity
The change in attitude or behavior because of direct request
A compliance technique in which the initial commitment is followed by a change in the deal
Saying no to a big request makes a person more likely to say yes to a smaller yet
Saying yes to a small request makes a person more likely to say yes to a larger request
anything that doesn't associate any emotion within you.
When attitude doesn't match behavior it's called
Earlier information about someone weighs more than later information is ____ effect.
Constantly trying to make sense of out behavior and that of others is called
Blaming peoples personality rather than situation is called
Fundamental Attribution Error
2 Main types of attribution a person can make
Internal and external
Social conventions that regulate human life, like explicit laws & implicit cultural standards are
Following orders is _____ence
Commitment and Intimacy in a relationship but no passion
Attraction led by frequent meetings is called
You like them because they like you
reciprocity of liking
helping others by sacrifice on the part of the helper
Responsibility of acting in an emergency situation is shared among those present is called
Diffusion of responsibility
Intentional harm against living things
how aggression is defined by most psychologists.
frustration is directly linked to aggression