N210 Week 6 Lecture Aging Process

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N210 Week 6 Lecture Aging Process
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2015-10-12 14:46:41
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N210 Week Aging Process
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  1. 1. Summarize major physiologic, cognitive, psychosocial, moral, and spiritual developments and tasks of older adulthood.
    • Physiologic development pg. 426-428
    • • Under some degree of decline in overall functioning, and the body becomes less efficient
    • • Development of chronic diseases such as hypertension, stroke, cancer, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sinusitis
    • • Sarcopenia refers to loss of muscle mass that frequently occurs in older adults
    • • Sacropenic obesity describes the muscle loss combined with an increase in body fat as people age
    • • Functional organs start to decline: Heart, lungs, GI, vision, hearing
    • • The greatest threat to the health of older adults is loss of the physiologic reserve of the various organ systems
    • • When illness occurs, increased physical and emotional stress places an older adult at risk for complex reactions
    • Cognitive
    • • Takes longer for adults to respond and react, particularly in new or unfamiliar surroundings.
    • • Mild short-term (recent) memory loss is common but can be remedied by an older adult using notes, schedules and calendars
    • • Long-term memory loss: usually remains intact. Risk for Alzheimer disease, depression, and delirium which causes cognitive impairment
    • • No change in intelligence
    • Psychosocial pg. 428-429
    • • Disengagement theory: older adults often withdraw from usual roles and become more introspective and self-focused. Resulting in decreased interaction between the aging person and others in the social system he belongs
    • • Erikson’s theory: Ego Integrity vs. Despair: Look forward and look back and begin to reflect on their life. Older adults search for emotional integration and acceptance of the past and present, as well as acceptance of physiologic decline without fear of death
    • • “Satisfied with achievements with no regrets and look forward”
    • • Serenity and contentment
    • • Life review or reminiscence: review life experiences and is part of achieving ego integrity
    • • A person who regrets the past and sees current problems as insurmountable, however may despair
    • • Havighurst’s theory: concerned with the maintenance of social contacts and relationships
    • • The person has to find new and meaningful roles in old age while being reasonably comfortable with the social customs of the times
    • Moral/Spiritual
    • • According to Kohlberg have completed their moral development. Most are at conventional level, following society’s rules in response to other’s expectations
    • • Spiritually, remain at an earlier level, often at the individualize-reflective level.
    • • As a person ages, spirituality and transcendence are a resource and a source of strength when faced with inevitable change and loss
  2. Discuss common health problems of older adults pg. 433-435
    • • Most older people are not impaired but are functional in the community; thereby benefiting from health –oriented interventions
    • • Older people are more vulnerable to physical, emotional, and socioeconomic problems that people in other age groups and may require special attention to health promotion and maintenance
    • • The leading cause of death in older adults heart disease, cancer and stroke
    • • Risk for accidental injury because of changes in vision and hearing, loss of mass and strength of muscles, slower reflexes and reaction time and decreased sensory ability
    • • Falls are the most common cause of injuries
    • • Difficult regaining health after an injury
  3. Discuss physical and functional changes that occur with aging
    • Look at Box 19-2 pg. 427 or gerontology worksheet
  4. Describe common myths and stereotypes that perpetuate ageism. pg. 426 table 19-2
    • • Old age beings at 65 years of age
    • • Most older adults live in long-term care facilities
    • • Most older adults are sick
    • • Old age means mental deterioration
    • • Older adults are not interested in sex
    • • Older adults don’t care how they look
    • • Most older adults are isolated and lonely
    • • Bladder problems are a problem of aging
    • • Older adults do not deserve aggressive treatment for serious illnesses
  5. Medications
    • Antidepressants
    • Psychotherapy
    • “talk therapy”
    • Or both
    • Nursing interventions
    • (citalopram and paroxetine) that act on the chemical imbalance in the brain are also useful
    • treatments for major depression
  6. 6. Define elder neglect, elder abuse, financial abuse, and emotional abuse and list signs and symptoms of each (437-438)
    • A. Neglect
    • i. Poor hygiene
    • ii. Inadequate nutrition
    • iii. Untreated injuries
    • iv. Lack of assistance with care needs
    • B. Physical abuse
    • i. Causes pain, impairment, or deliberate physical injury to an older adult
    • ii. Hitting, assault of any kind, slapping, and restraining are all examples of forms of physical abuse
    • iii. They’re incompatible with the older adult or caregiver’s version of how injury occurred
    • iv. Untreated injuries or suspicious cuts and bruises should alert HCP possibility of abuse
    • C. Sexual abuse
    • i. Involves nonconsensual sexual contact of any kind with an elderly
    • D. Emotional abuse
    • i. Threats, intimidation, or isolation result in anguish for the elder person
    • E. Financial abuse
    • i. Exploitation or misuse of another’s property
  7. 7. Discuss potential economic, social, and nutritional issues for older adults (430-431)
    • A. Economic
    • i. A lack of adequate retirement income can affect their ability to meet their needs
    • 1. Medical care and housing or social and creative interests
    • B. Social
    • i. Older adults may develop new hobbies or increase their involvement in community
    • ii. If one cannot adjust and form new relationships, social isolation can become a problem
    • 1. Social isolation: sense of being alone and lonely as a result of having fewer meaningful relationships
    • 2. May occur because of declining health or income, transportation problems, or ageism
    • 3. Has been associated with declining health and higher mortality rates
    • C. Nutrition
  8. 8. Describe nursing interventions to promote health for older adults (438-439)
    • A. Eat a diet that includes all food groups
    • i. Low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol
    • ii. Balances calories with physical activity
    • iii. Has recommended amounts of fruits, vegetables, and grains
    • iv. Uses sugar and salt in moderation
    • B. Make exercise a part of daily activities
    • i. Regular aerobic exercise can reduce risk for dementia
    • ii. Resistance training may improve cognition
    • C. Discuss with your primary physician whether to include a vitamin D supplement as part of routine
    • i. Considered moderately beneficial for helping prevent hip fractures and other broken bones
    • D. Drink alcohol in moderation
    • E. Do not smoke
  9. 9. Describe government and community resources that are available for older adults (432-433)
    • A. Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE)
    • i. 55 years old or older can receive comprehensive interdisciplinary care
    • ii. Receive support to live in community as long as possible
    • B. Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities (NORCs)
    • C. Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH)
    • i. Establish community-based, culuturally appropriate programs and eliminate health disparities among racial and ethnic groups

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