N210 Week 1 Lab Hygiene Measures

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Leon
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309516
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N210 Week 1 Lab Hygiene Measures
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2015-10-12 13:49:55
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N210 Week Lab Hygiene Measures
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  1. a. Discuss the characteristics of healthy skin, mucous membranes, nails, hair and teeth. (Ch. 30, pp. 901)
    • 1. Healthy Skin, or integument
    • a. Unbroken
    • b. Adequately nourished and hydrated
    • 2. Mucous Membranes
    • a. Line the cavities of the body
    • 3. Nails
    • a. Accessories to the skin
    • b. Healthy nailbeds are pink, convex, and evenly curved
    • 4. Hair
    • a. Illness affects the hair
    • b. Good general health of hair maintains health of the body
    • c. Be aware of any color changes or hair condition as they are indicators of hormonal activity or changes in the blood supply to follicles
    • 5. Teeth
    • a. Healthy teeth = healthy diet
    • b. Beginning of the digestive process and tasting pleasure are enhanced when the mouth and teeth are in good condition
  2. b. List nursing guidelines for bathing patients. (Ch. 30, pp. 923-924)
    • • Perineal Care
    • 1. Assemble supplies and provide privacy
    • 2. Explain the procedure to the patient, perform hand hygiene, and put on disposable gloves
    • 3. Wash, rinse the groin area (both male and female patients)
    • a. Use a small amount of mild unscented soap and water
    • 4. FOR A FEMALE PATIENT
    • a. Spread the labia and move the washcloth from the pubic area toward the anal area to prevent carrying organisms from the anal area back over the genital area
    • b. Always proceed from least contaminated area to the most contaminated area
    • c. Use clean portion of washcloth for each stroke
    • d. Rinse the washed areas with plain water
    • 5. FOR A MALE PATIENT
    • a. First, clean the tip of the penis, moving the washcloth in a circular motion from the meatus outward
    • b. Wash the shaft of the penis using downward strokes toward the pubic area
    • c. Always proceed from least contaminated area to most contaminated area
    • d. Rinse the washed areas with plan water
    • 6. Uncircumcised MALE PATIENT
    • a. Retract foreskin (prepuce) while washing the penis
    • b. Pull the uncircumcised foreskin back into place over the glans penis to prevent constriction of the penis
    • c. IT IS NOT RECOMMENDED TO THE RETRACT THE FORESKIN FOR INFANTS AND CHILDHOOS AS INJURY AND SCARRING COULD OCCUR
    • d. Wash and rinse the male's scrotum
    • i. Handle the scrotum with care, very sensitive
    • 7. Dry the cleaned areas and apply emollient as indicated
    • 8. Avoid the use of powder as it can become a medium for bacteria growth
    • 9. Turn the patient on his or her side and continue cleansing the anal area
    • a. Least to most contaminated area
    • i. Females: vagina to the anus
    • b. Change the washcloth with each stroke until area is clean
    • c. Rinse an dry the area
    • 10. Remove gloves
    • 11. Perform hand hygiene
  3. c. Demonstrate techniques for assisting patients with hygiene measures, including those used when administering different types of baths and those used when cleaning each part of the body.
    1. REFER TO SKILLS VIDEOS AND WEEK 1 SKILLS LABS PROCEDURE: Hygiene Measures
  4. b. Rinse the feet to remove soap residue that can dry and irritate the skin
    • c. Dry feet thoroughly, dry between the toes
    • 1. Patients with DIABETES and PERIPHERAL ARTERY DISEASE should apply moisturizer on the tops and bottoms of the feet to keep the skin soft
    • 2. These patients should sprinkle talcum power or cornstarch between toes to keep the skin dry
    • d. Use antifungal foot powder if necessary
    • e. Patients with diabetes
    • 1. SHOULD FILE NAILS
    • f. Patients without diabetes
    • 1. AVOID DIGGING INTO OR CUTTING THE TOENAILS AT THE LATERAL CORNERS
    • g. DO NOT CUT OFF CORNS OR CALLUSES
    • 1. Avoid commercial removers, may contain ingredients that lead to infections or ulcers
    • 2. Consult a podiatrist if corns or calluses are present
    • h. Explain the dangers of going barefoot
    • 1. Bare feet could get injured
    • 2. Athlete's foot may be acquired in public showers
    • i. Advise patients to wear…
    • 1. Appropriate footwear
    • 2. Cotton socks
    • 3. Knee high stockings and do not sit with KNEES CROSSED
    • j. Prop the feet up above level of hips a few minutes several times a day if the feet swell
    • k. Avoid using heating pads and hot water bottles due to possible burns or blisters on the feet
    • l. Report any signs of foot problems to your primary care provider
    • 7. Hair
    • a. Brush or have the patient brush his/her hair and comb the hair well to stimulate scalp and undo tangled hair
    • b. Patient may then shampoo while showering if able
    • c. If unable to wash his/her own her...
    • 1. Prepare several pitchers of water of a suitably warm temperature for washing and rinsing, shampoo, one or two towels for drying, and a receptacle to receive wash and rinse water
    • 2. Place protective pad and a plastic hair-washing tray if available
    • 3. Place patient in a position over the pad
    • 4. Wet hair, apply shampoo, and massage the scalp well while washing hair
    • 5. Rinse the hair reapply shampoo for a second washing, if indicated
    • 6. Rinse hair thoroughly
    • 7. Apply conditioner if requested or if the scalp appears dry
    • 8. Dry the hair as quickly as possible to prevent the patient from becoming chilled, and arrange the hair according to the patient's preference
  5. e. Describe how to shave male patients and list any nursing precautions. (Ch. 30, pp. 923)
    • 1. NEVER TRIM OR SHAVE A PATIENTS BEARD OR MUSTACHE WITHOUT THEIR CONSENT
    • 2. Shaving after a warm bath softens the hair
    • 3. Process
    • a. Perform hand hygiene
    • b. Indentify patient and explain procedure
    • c. Cover patient's chest with a towel or waterproof pad
    • d. Fill bath basin with comfortably warm water (100 - 125 degrees F)
    • e. Press warm washcloth on patients skin to soften the hair
    • f. Dispense shaving cream into palm of hand, rub hands together, and apply area to be shaved about a .5 inch thick
    • g. WITH ONE HAND, pull the skin taut at the area to be shaved
    • 1. Use a smooth stroke
    • 2. Face
    • i. Shave in the direction of hair growth
    • 3. Leg
    • i. Shave against the direction of hair growth, upwards in short strokes
    • h. Remove residual shaving cream with a wet washcloth
    • i. It patient requests, apply aftershave or lotion to the area shaved
    • j. Remove an discard gloves
    • k. Hand hygiene
    • 4. Precautions
    • a. Be aware of who may need assistance shaving
    • b. Patients find electric razors more convenient
    • 1. Recommended for patients who...
    • i. Are receiving anticoagulant therapy
    • ii. Have a bleeding disorder
    • iii. Are ill and bedridden
  6. f. List medical asepsis guidelines related to handling of linen and the disposition of contaminated articles. (Ch. 30, pp. 943-950)
    • 1. Fold reusable linens; sheets, blankets, or spread, in place on the bed in fourths and hand them over a clean chair
    • 2. Roll all soiled linen inside the bottom sheet and place directly into laundry hamper
    • a. DO NOT PLACE SOILED LINENS ON THE FLOOR OR FURNITURE.
    • b. DO NOT HOLD LINENS AGAINST YOUR UNIFORM
    • 3. PLACE ALL SOILED LINENS IN APPROPRIATE CONTAINER

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