N210 Week 1 Lab Safety Medical Asepsis Infection Control

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N210 Week 1 Lab Safety Medical Asepsis Infection Control
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N210 Week Lab Safety Medical Asepsis Infection Control
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  1. 11. Unfamiliar environment
    • b. Poisoning
    • 1. Assess for…
    • a. Person's developmental stage
    • 1. Younger children as they are more prone to ingest household chemicals
    • 2. Older children may ingest as a suicide attempt
    • 3. Adolescents and young adults may OD or poisoned by drugs
    • 4. Older person may take the wrong meds: due to poor vision at times
    • 2. Accidental poisonings from ingestion of meds is responsible for more than half of childhood poisoning deaths
    • 3. Risks
    • a. Unsafe storage
    • b. Spending time in environments outside the home
    • c. Lack of attn by caregiver
    • d. Families that give access to grandparents' meds.
    • e. Multiple pharmaceuticals and vitamins and dietary supplements in the home
    • f. Toxic fumes (mainly in home)
    • c. Suffocation and Choking (Asphyxiation)
    • 1. Assess for
    • a. Knowledge level of people, especially parents in VITAL!
    • 2. Incidence greater in children
    • 3. Causes
    • a. Drowning
    • b. Choking on foreign substance inhaled into trachea
    • c. Gas or smoke poisoning
    • d. Infants may suffocate on pillows
    • e. Shoulder harness on seatbelt on younger children
    • f. Or children become trapped in discarded refrigerator and suffocate
    • d. Firearm Injures
    • 1. NURSES MUST APPROACH THIS TOPIC IN A NONJUDGMENTAL MANNER
    • a. FOCUS ON INJURY PREVENTION
    • 2. Intentional injuries are leading cause of mortality in children
    • 3. Risk
    • a. Unsafe storage
    • b. Easily accessible
    • c. Lax supervision
  2. 2. Nursing Interventions that Reduce Patient's risk of injury (Ch. 26, pp. 696-712)
    • A. Diagnose / Identify unsafe siutations and patients at risk
    • B. Outcome Identification and planning
    • C. Implementing the care plan
    • D. Teaching to PROMOTE SAFETY
    • 1. Preventing accidents
    • 2. Educating safety and prevention for infants
    • a. Childproof the home
    • E. Identify awareness of behaviors
    • 1. Smoking, drinking in women that are pregnant
  3. 3. Goal of NPSG (Ch. 26, pp. 712)
    • A. TO PROMOTE A CULTURE OF SAFETY, prints out an annual list of goals
    • 1. Reported events with corrective actions in response of the events
    • 2. Specific to each accredited program
  4. 4. Specific Nursing Interventions (Ch. 26)
    A. REFER TO BOOK and Learning outcome #1 notes
  5. 5. All possible situations when hand washing is needed (Ch. 23 pp., 543-544)
    • A. After using the restroom
    • B. Before eating
    • C. When hands are visibly soiled (blood, body fluid, etc.)
    • D. Exposure to certain organism whether known or suspected
  6. 6. When to use alcohol based hand gels (Ch. 23, pp. 542)
    • A. Before and after patient contact
    • B. Contact with surfaces of the patient's environment
    • C. After removing gloves
    • D. After direct patient care when moving to a CONTAMINATED body site to a CLEAN body site
    • E. Before inserting urinary catheters or other devices that DO NOT REQUIRE SURGICAL PLACEMENT
    • F. BEFORE PUTTING ON STERILE GLOVES
  7. 7. Hygiene guidelines to hair and jewelry
    • A. Jewelry
    • 1. Remove if possible, and secure in safe place
    • 2. Plain wedding band may remain in place
    • 3. IF JEWELRY WAS WORN DURING PATIENT CARE, IT SHOULD BE LEFT ON DURING HANDWASHING
    • B. Hair
  8. 8. 6 Steps in the Chain of Infection (Ch. 23, pp. 533), Diagram
    • 1. Infectious agents
    • a. Bacteria
    • b. Virus
    • c. Fungi
    • d. Parasites
    • 2. Reservoir
    • a. Natural habitat of the organism
    • b. Examples
    • a. Humans
    • b. Animals
    • c. Water
    • d. Food
    • e. Soil
    • f. Inanimate objects
    • 3. Portal of exit from reservoir
    • a. Point of escape for the organism from the reservoir
    • a. In humans:
    • 1. Respiratory
    • 2. Gastrointestinal
    • 3. Genitourinary tracts
    • 4. Breaks in skin
    • 5. Blood
    • 6. Tissue
    • 4. Means of transmission
    • a. Routes
    • a. Indirect / Direct contact
    • b. Airborne
    • c. Droplets
    • d. Contaminated blood, food, water or inanimate objects
    • 5. Portals of entry
    • a. Entry point at which organism enters the NEW HOST
    • a. Entry points include:
    • 1. Urinary
    • 2. Respiratory
    • 3. GI tracts
    • 4. Skin
    • 6. Susceptible host
    • a. Susceptibility - the degree of resistance the potential host has to the pathogen
    • b. Examples
    • a. Hospital patients due to weakened health state
  9. 9. Conditions that predispose (make them susceptible ) clients to infection (Ch.23, pp. 536-537)
    • 1. Complications with skin integrity an mucous membranes
    • 2. Imbalance of pH levels of the gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, and skin
    • 3. Complications with Integrity and number of WBCs
    • 4. Age, sex race, hereditary which influences susceptibility
    • 5. Lack of Immunizations, natural or acquired
    • 6. Level of fatigue, nutritional and general health status
    • 7. The presence of preexisting illnesses
    • 8. Previous or current treatments
    • 9. Certain medications
    • 10. Stress level
    • 11. Use of invasive or indwelling medical devices
  10. 10. Nosocomial Infection (now known as Acquired Infection) (Ch. 23, pp. 544)
    • 1. Infection that indicates something ORIGINATING OR TAKING PLACE IN A HOSPITAL
    • a. Source may be…
    • 1. Exogenous
    • a. Acquired from other people
    • 2. Endgenous
    • a. Causative organism comes from microbial life within the person
    • 3. Iatrogenic
    • a. Infection from a diagnostic or treatment procedure
    • b. NOT ALL NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS ARE IATROGENIC
    • b. Interventions
    • 1. USE APPROPRIATE HAND HYGIENE
  11. 11. Major organisms that cause nosocomial infections (Ch. 23, pp. 544)
    • A. Exogenos: Organism that is acquired from other people
    • B. Endogenous: Causative organism comes from microbial life within the person
  12. 12. Define Surgical and Medical Asepsis (Ch.23, pp. 538-539)
    • A. Surgical Asepsis (Sterile Technique)
    • a. Practices used to render and keep objects and areas from free form organisms
    • b. Examples of surgical asepsis
    • 1. Inserting an indwelling urinary catheter
    • 2. Inserting an IV catheter
    • B. Medical Asepsis (Clean Technique)
    • a. Procedures and practices that reduce the number and transfer of pathogens
    • b. Examples of medical asepsis
    • 1. Hand hyigene
    • 2. Gloving
  13. 13. How and when PPE should be used (Ch. 23, pp. 548)
    • • Minimizes or prevents exposure to infectious material
    • 1. Gloves
    • a. When there is a possibility of soiling the hands with body fluid
    • 2. Gowns
    • a. Worn to prevent soiling of worker's clothes by the patient's blood or body fluid
    • 3. Masks
    • a. Prevents the wearer from inhaling large-particle aerosols and small-particle droplet nuclei
    • b. Protects against respiratory secretions
    • c. Discourage the wearer from touching the eyes, nose , and mouth
    • 4. Eyewear
    • a. Goggles or faceshield
    • 1. Must be worn when there is a risk of contaminating the mucous membranes of the eyes
  14. a. ALL MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT IN PATIENT'S ROOM MUST BE CLEANED AND DISINFECTED
    • 5. Workers are made aware of contact precautions
    • F. CDI: Clostridium difficile
    • 1. Found in the intestinal tract
    • 2. Those at most risk
    • a. Older adults who are receiving medical care and taking antibiotics
    • 3. Treatment
    • a. Prescribe antibiotics cautiously
    • b. Use contact precautions
    • 1. Private room
    • 2. Gloves, gown when entering patient's room
    • c. Hand hygiene
    • d. Have room with non-disposable equipment cleaned and disinfected with bleach or other appropriate disinfectant
    • e. Notify new facility of CDI when transporting patient from old facility

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