Cats are infected with coronavirus FIP at a(n) _______ age; persistent low level viral antigen expression results in ___________.
young;high antiviral antibody titer
When persistent FIP virus is reactivated or the cat is infected with a related coronavirus, there is __________ formation and deposition in vessels, resulting in _________; the __(2)__ are the organs most commonly affected.
immune complex; vasculitis; kidney and retina
Describe the acute necrotizing form of FIP.
vascular effusion- "wet form"
Describe the subacute/inflammatory form of FIP.
multifocal pyogranulomatous inflammation of vessels- "dry form"
CNS involvement of FIP leads to __________ and _________ exudation into the ________.
hydrocephalus; fibrinous; CSF
Hematogenous dissemination of fungal yeast results in seeding of the ____________; systemic mycoses include... (4)
Carnivores; hemorrhage, pannecrosis of periventricular nuclei
Describe how salt intoxication causes neuronal necrosis.
brain becomes hyperosmolar compared to plasma--> cytotoxic edema and brain swelling--> cortical ischemia--> neuronal necrosis and malacia
Describe how a calf would become salt intoxicated.
animal is hypernatremic due to increased sodium intake or water deprivation--> brain cells accumulate idiogenic osmoles--> animal gains access to fresh water--> brain cells require time to eliminate osmoles, therefore, they swell--> cerebral circulation is impeded by tissue expansion within cranial vault--> edema neuronal necrosis, malacia
Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia is caused by..
enteric overgrowth of C. perfringens type D or E. coli, absorption and systemic dissemination of their toxins, inducing widespread vascular damage, and triggering the edema cycle
FSE triggers the __________ and the result is __________.
edema cycle; polioencephalomalacia
How do you distinguish polioencephalomalacia caused by bacterial exotoxin from that caused by thiamine deficiency or salt intoxication?
with FSE, vascular damage may be apparent in other organs; lesions are observed in specific brain nuclei (basal nuclei, thalamus, substantia nigra w/ FSE)
How does lead poisoning lead to malacia?
lead binds to and damages vascular endothelium, resulting in edema and alteration of the BBB; also, toxic to neurons and schwann cells
Malacia in white matter is either...
pannecrosis or demyelination.
Moldy corn poisoning leads to ___________ in _________.
Malacia associated with moldy corn poisoning is secondary to _____________ and sometimes __________.
pronounced vasogenic edema; hemorrhage
__(2)__ lesions tend to produce greater alterations in CSF than do ________ lesions.
Meningeal and paraventricular; deeper parenchymal
_________ diseases are more likely to have abnormal CSF than are _________ diseases.
What are indications for CSF analysis? (3)
abnormal neurologic exam, recurring fever of undetermined origin, neck/limb pain
What are contraindications for CSF analysis, and how do you determine this?
post-trauma or increased intracranial pressure; determined by decreasing level of consciousness, non-responsive pupils, rigid paresis, and altered respiratory patterns/cardiac rhythms
What can happen if you sample CSF from a patient with increased intracranial pressure?
brain herniation- usually fatal- most serious complication that can occur with CSF sampling
What are the methods of CSF collection in which species? (3)
atlantooccipital puncture (cerebromedullary cistern)- all, lumbar cisternal puncture- dogs, lumbosacral interspace-cats, LA
How do you collect CSF for cytology? For culture?
cytology- EDTA (normal CSF shouldn't clot, so serum tube may be adequate); culture- serum tube (EDTA is not sterile)
If CSF analysis is delayed, store at ________ for a maximum of ________.
What is the normal color and clarity of CSF?
colorless and clear
Pink to bright red CSF may indicate...
traumatic tap, recent hemorrhage [centrifuge- becomes clear means iatrogenic blood or VERY recent hemorrhage, stays pink means hemorrhage at least 10hr ago]
Dull red or brown CSF may indicate...
hemorrhage 24-48hr ago
Xanthochromia is _________ color due to release of ________; this occurs ___________.
yellow-orange; bilirubin from engulfed RBCs; 12 hrs after hemorrhage
Turbid CSF indicates increased __________ or _________.
cellularity; protein conc
What is the Pandy test?
screening for Ig in CSF; + test is increased turbidity when mixed with carbolic acid
Most CSF protein is from ____________.
The major Ig in CSF is _________.
What is the most frequent abnormality in CSF?
4 causes of increased protein conc in CSF.
blood contamination, inflammation/space-occupying lesions disrupting BBB, inflammation causing increase intrathecal production of Ab, or both
How are WBCs and RBCs counted in CSF?
using a hemocytometer
Causes of mild pleocytosis. (3)
viral, trauma, vascular disease
Causes of moderate pleocytosis. (2)
Causes of severe pleocytosis. (2)
What cells are the major types in NORMAL CSF in dogs, cats, and horses? In cattle?
dogs, cats, horses: large mononuclear cells
Neutrophilic pleocytosis is associated with _________, except __________.
bacterial infections; Listeria
Neurophilic pleocytosis indicates that ______ of the cells are neutrophils; it can be caused by... (5)