Articulations-- Structural Classification

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  1. Structural classification
    Presence or absence of a joint cavity and the kind of connective tissue that is present between the two bones in the joint
  2. Three classes of structural classification
    • fibrous
    • cartilaginous
    • synovial
  3. fibrous joints
    joints where the bones are held together by dense fibrous tissue; no joint cavity (no space between the joints)
  4. Two types of fibrous joints
    • synarthritic (immovable)
    • amphiarthritic (slightly movable)
  5. Examples of fibrous joints
    • sutures- synarthroses
    • syndesmoses- amphiarthroses (distal end of tibia and fibula)
    • gomphoses- synarthroses (teeth in the sockets)
  6. cartilaginous joints
    joints that are held together by cartilage; can be fibrocartilage, elastic cartilage, etc. 

    no joint cavity

    can be slightly movable (amphiarthrosis) and synarthrosis (immovable)
  7. Examples of cartilaginous joints
    • synchondroses- immovable
    • symphysis- amphiarthroses
  8. Synovial joints
    joints where the bones are not bound together by a connective tissue but rather are separated by a synovial cavity

    all synovial joints are diarthroses
  9. Synovial joints
    - articulating region
    the articulating region of each bone is covered with hyaline cartilage-- called the articular cartilage

    That hyaline cartilage is there to allow for the smooth movement of bones so there is no friction
  10. Synovial joints
  11. Synovial joints
    - binding the two bones together
    binding the two bones together are two capsules: fibrous (outer; continuous with periosteum of bones) and a synovial membrane, which creates the second layer and covers the inside of the fibrous capsule and also surrounds the articular cartilage
  12. What is the synovial membrane responsible for?
    it is responsible for producing synovial fluid, which is a watery fluid that fills the space between the two bones, which is called the synovial joint cavity
  13. Types of joint movement
    • plane/ gliding joint
    • flexion/ extension
    • dorsiflexion
    • plantar flexion
    • abduction
    • adduction
    • circumduction
    • rotation
  14. Plane/ gliding joint
    side to side movement or forward to backward movement
  15. flexion/ extension
    • flexion: decrease the angle at the joint
    • extension: increase the angle at the joint
  16. dorsiflexion
    when you bend the foot at the angle region (bring toes up_
  17. plantar flexion
    stand on tippy-toes
  18. abduction
    move body part farther from body
  19. adduction
    move body part closer to body
  20. circumduction
    make a circle with the limb
  21. rotation
    arm is stationary but you are rotating one bone around the other

    • - pronation: rotational event where palms are upward
    • - supination: rotation where the palms are down
  22. Axes of movement
    monoaxial: movement in one plane (hinge-- flexion, extension; pivot: rotation)

    biaxial: movement in two planes

    triaxial: a wide range of movements
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Articulations-- Structural Classification
2015-10-13 13:30:26
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