Ch. 9 Sexuality
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How have attitudes about casual sex changed over time?
Society has become more accepting toward the idea of casual sex, sex before marriage, as long as it is in the context of a committed relationship. In addition, men are more permissive to the idea of casual sex than women are.
How have attitudes about gay sex changed over time?
the idea of homosexuality has become more morally acceptable in the past few years and people are more accepting of the idea if they believe homosexuality is a result of biological rather than social influences
What is the modern standard of casual sex?
- women viewed more favorably by others when inviting someone for casual sex (she is presumed to be more warm, less dangerous, and better in bed)
- Although, both men and women are evaluated negatively when being promiscuous with sex
- women with an STI are viewed more harshly than men
What is the sexual double standard?
the standard where men are viewed as "studs" for having multiple sex partners whereas women are viewed as "sluts" for having multiple sex partners
What are the themes underlying the motives for sex in committed relationships?
- emotional: sex communicating love and commitment
- physical: pleasure and expressions of attraction for partner
- pragmatic: the wish to attain some goal such as making a baby or making someone jealous
- insecurity: desire to boost one's self-esteem or to keep a partner from straying
What is extradyadic sex and what do people think about it?
having sex outside the dyad (couple)with someone other than one's partner. Men are more open to this idea than women but women pursue a more emotional connection rather than a physical connection. Although, most people, when asked, disapprove of this action
What does the good genes hypothesis suggest?
women with less desirable mates tend to profit from a dual mating strategy where they pursue long-term partners who will contribute resources to protect and feed their offspring while surreptitiously seeking good genes for their children from other men
What are the sex differences in sex drives?
men, in general, have higher sex drives than women: men masturbate more often, want sex more often, want sex sooner in developing relationships, fantasize about sex more often, spend more money on sex, and more accepting of casual sex than women
What is the illusion of unique invulnerability?
the belief that bad things are generally more likely to happen to others than to us
What is alcohol myopia?
reduction of people's abilities to think about and process all of the information available to them when they are intoxicated
How have cultural factors influenced the prominence of unsafe sex?
- underestimates of risk: being unaware of how likely they are to catch STDs without protection
- faulty decision making: making poor decisions during sexual arousal, questionable behavior, condoms less desirable, and intoxication
- pluralistic ignorance: people wrongly believing that their feelings and beliefs are different from those of others
- inequalities in power: one partner holding more power in the relationship than the other and thus influencing what occurs in the relationship (having safe or unsafe sex)
- abstinence education: convincing students that condoms are "evil" and to only practice abstinence leading to more sex without condoms
- decreased intimacy and pleasure: sex is seen as more pleasurable when there is an absence of condoms
What are the factors that contribute to sexual satisfaction and why do most people not report high levels of sexual satisfaction?
- frequency of sex (generally 3 times a week)
- good relationship satisfaction
- fulfilling needs of autonomy (choosing the activity), competence (being able to perform with confidence), and relatedness (feeling close connection to partner)
- having comfortable and open communication in the bedroom
- Reasons for sexual dis-satisfaction:
- due to the cultural norms of expecting the man to take charge in the bedroom, the autonomy level for women begins to decline leading to lower levels of sexual satisfaction
What are the 4 dimensions of sexual violation?
- fondling & verbal coercion: manipulating another to submit to unwanted touching
- verbal coercion & intercourse: manipulation and intoxication lead to penetration of genitals
- fondling & physical force: forcibly touching the other person
- intercourse &physical force: rape
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