Cattle2- Acidosis, Indigestion, Hardware, Bloat

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Mawad
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309594
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Cattle2- Acidosis, Indigestion, Hardware, Bloat
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2015-10-26 22:50:45
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vetmed cattle2
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vetmed cattle2
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  1. RUmen acidosis occurs because feed is presented to the rumen ________, and it is converted to __(2)__.
    too rapidly; lactic acid and VFAs
  2. What are the 3 layers inside the rumen from top to bottom?
    gases, today's hay, grain and yesterday's hay
  3. Consumption of a __________ diet can lead to rumen acidosis.
    highly fermentable, non-structural carbohydrate
  4. Consumption of a highly fermentable diet leads to increased bacterial growth--> increased _____--> decreased _____--> increased growth of ________--> increased _________--> decreased pH causes cessation of _________ and absorption of __________--> ___________--> increased ________ and decreased ________ growth--> DEATH CYCLE
    VFA; pH; Strep bovis; lactic acid; fermentation; lactic acid; METABOLIC ACIDOSIS; lactobacillus; Strep bovis
  5. _________ microbes break down to sugars; _________ microbes break down to acids.
    Cellulolytic; fermentative
  6. With normal rumen homeostasis, _______ production predominates, and ________ bacteria are in balance with _________ bacteria.
    VFA; lactate-producing; lactate-utilizing
  7. When rumen pH decreases, __________ bacteria increase; as pH continues to decline, _________ decline and __________ increase.
    lactic acid-producing; Strep bovis; Lactobacilli
  8. Breakdown of cellulose and starch leads to __________, which kills microbes and cells; this in combination with ________ causes damage to rumen mucosa.
    increased osmolarity; very low pH
  9. Increased osmolarity causes increased _________, leading to....
    water consumption; death of gram neg bacteria (hypotonic lysis) and death of rumen mucosal cells (hypotonic lysis)
  10. Lysis of gram negative bacteria in the rumen leads to release of _________, leading to __________ , which allows translocation of __(2)__ into __________.
    endotoxin; rumen mucosal damage; endotoxin and bacteria; portal circulation
  11. Effects of decreased rumen pH. (4)
    rumen stasis, rumenitis, hyperkeratosis, slough of mucosa (if severe)
  12. Sloughing of mucosa that occurs with severe rumenitis allows translocation of bacteria and endotoxin AND gives access of _________ to _________.
    F. necrophorum; portal blood
  13. What management factor can lead to grain engorgement?
    not enough time for rumen adaptation to increased concentrates in diet
  14. Types of feed that are often implicated with grain engorgement? (3)
    high starch/sugar (grain, fruit), high in lactate (silage), feed processing methods (steam rolled, flaked, cracking)
  15. Clinical signs of grain engorgement. (11)
    off feed, down milk, dehydrated, enlarged abdomen on dorsal left, splashes, bloat, diarrhea, colic, increased HR, weak, depression
  16. Metabolic acidosis causes ___________ [clinical sign].
    severe depression
  17. How do you diagnose grain engorgement? (3)
    history (acute), rumen fluid pH <5 (saliva contamination will increase pH), feces loose with large amount of grain
  18. Laboratory data that accompanies grain overload. (4)
    azotemia, metabolic acidosis (low bicarb), hypoproteinemia, neutropenia w/ left shift
  19. What warrants rumenotomy and aggressive medical therapy for grain overload txt? (5)
    rumen pH<5, HR>100, >8% dehydration, severe rumen distension, recumbancy
  20. What warrants aggressive medical therapy alone for grain overload txt (not rumenotomy)? (5)
    rumen pH >5, HR<100, <8% dehydration, moderate rumen distension, standing/ambulatory
  21. How do you treat acidosis associated with grain engorgement? (6)
    IV fluids, bicarb, oral alkalinizers, B vit, calcium, remove lactate and fermentable feeds
  22. Describe medical txt for grain engorgement? (5)
    treat acidosis, evacuate rumen with kingman tube and replace with fresh rumen juice, Penicillin, Banamine, Thiabendazole
  23. Potential complications of rumen acidosis. (6)
    death (w/i 24h), laminitis** (w/i 4-6wk), liver abscess, CVC syndrome, mycotic rumenitis, polioencephalomalacia
  24. Sub-acute rumen acidosis is common with ___________; it leads to... (3)
    modern dairy feeding systems; mild rumen acidosis, small areas of damaged mucosa, and chronic lameness problems.
  25. Diagnosis of subacute rumen acidosis. (5)
    milk fat depression, rumen pH<5.5, serum amyloid A increase, leukopenia, serum copper
  26. Indigestion is characterized by _____________, with abnormal __(2)__.
    reticulorumen dysfunction; motor function and fermentation
  27. Primary causes of abnormal motor function causing reticulorumen dysfunction. (3)
    reticuloruminal wall disorders, innervation abnormalities, obstruction
  28. Primary causes of abnormal rumen fermentation as a cause of reticulorumen dysfunction. (3)
    poor quality feed, spoiled feed, rumen acidosis
  29. Secondary causes of reticulorumen dysfunction. (5)
    endotoxemia, fever, pain causing decreased appetite/ruminal hypomotility/reduced fermentation
  30. Describe normal contractility of the reticulorumen.
    2 contractions of reticulum followed by contraction of rumen; the second reticular contraction relaxes the reticulomasal orifice
  31. Primary cycle activity of the reticulorumen runs _________; secondary cycle activity runs _________, causing __________.
    caudal; cranial; eructation
  32. Abnormalities in excitatory receptors to the forestomach cause _______________.
    reduced excitatory input to the brain
  33. Increased inhibitory input to the gastric center cause increased ____________.
    inhibitory input to brain
  34. Depression of gastric centers within the CNS reduces _________ activity.
    vagal motor
  35. Primary indigestions are caused by... (4)
    rumenitis, reticulitis, hardware, parakeratosis
  36. Primary indigestions are sequelae to __________, such as those caused by... (3)
    abnormal feed intake; acute acidosis, toxicities, viral infections.
  37. Dark, enlarged papillae due to chronic VFA exposure and reduced rumen pH.
    parakeratosis
  38. Rumen parakeratosis is caused by _________.
    chronic acidosis
  39. Vagal indigestion caused by reduced passage from the reticulorumen can be caused by __(2)__ failure.
    omasal transport or pyloric outflow failure
  40. Anterior functional stenosis causes __________; posterior stenosis causes __________.
    omasal transport failure; pyloric outflow failure
  41. Omasal transport failure results in an enlarged _________, _________ appetite, reduced _________, and ______-shape when viewed from behind.
    rumen; decreased; fecal output; L
  42. With omasal transport failure, rumen chloride is ___ 30mmol/L; with pyloric outflow failure, rumen chloride is ____ 30mmol.L.
    less than; greater than
  43. Pyloric outflow failure causes... (3)
    dehydration, hypochloremic alkalosis, and even more severely reduced fecal output
  44. Systemic illnesses that can cause secondary indigestion. (5)
    hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, fever, pain, depression of CNS
  45. What does papple-shaped (L) rumen mean?
    decreased rumen and/or reticular function; indigestion
  46. Rumen fluid analysis involves... (3)
    tube placement (or other method of rumen fluid collection to reduce saliva contamination), rumen fluid reduction test, microscopic analysis
  47. What is the most common form of omasal transport failure?
    hardware disease
  48. Describe how hardware is a biphasic disease?
    • Phase I- puncture reticulum, local inflammation, dramatic drop in production, recovery
    • Phase II- pericardial involvement, second acute illness
  49. Why is hardware common in late pregnancy/post calving?
    less room for rumen, increased pressure on diaphragm at calving
  50. Clinical signs of hardware disease. (12)
    acute onset, anorexia, depression, down on milk, fever, decreased gut motility, abducted elbows, reluctance to move, brisket edema, jugular distention, negative wither response, positive grunt test
  51. Brisket edema occurs with _________.
    right heart failure (usually hardware)
  52. Most consistent auscultation findings with hardware disease. (5)
    tachycardia, muffled heart sounds, absence of lung sounds, splashing heart sounds, friction rubs (washing machine murmur) with heart beat
  53. Grossly, post-mortem evaluation of a hardware cow shows...
    "hairy heart"- fibrosis
  54. If hardware is diagnosed acutely, how do you treat? (3)
    magnet, antibiotics, banamine
  55. Bloat = ________
    ruminal tympany
  56. How do you decipher b/w free gas bloat and frothy bloat?
    tube the cow- gas comes off= free gas bloat, no gas +/- green foam in end of tube= frothy bloat
  57. How does bloat appear?
    reverse D
  58. Acute causes of free gas bloat. (3)
    hypocalcemia, esophageal obstruction/injury, indigestion (grain engorgement)
  59. Acute causes of frothy bloat. (3)
    indigestion (idiopathic or grain engorgement, sudden changes in diet)
  60. Chronic causes of bloat. (4)
    tumor growths, chronic pneumonia, vagal indigestion/forestomach dysfunction, peritonitis, diaphragmatic hernia
  61. Bloat develops because... (2)
    inability to eructate, physical obstruction to eructation
  62. Historical data often accompanying bloat. (8)
    grazing legumes/fresh pasture, recently fresh, milk fever, hardware disease, pneumonia, recently administered oral txt (trauma), hypoderma lineatum, high conc diet
  63. What is hypoderma lineatum?
    wormed with ivermectin when warble larvae are migrating near the esophagus, causing massive inflammatory process and esophageal obstruction--> bloat
  64. Clinical signs of acute bloat. (8)
    lift-sided distension, gas ping high on left (at transverse processes), pain, increase HR, dyspnea, recently fresh-milk fever, [choke] salivation, swinging head, head/neck extension
  65. What are the 2 major types of frothy bloat?
    pasture/legume froth, feedlot froth
  66. What is "slime", associated with free gas frothy bloat?
    associated with rapid fermentation of grain, low pH rumen
  67. What are predispositions to frothy bloat? (4)
    legumes in diet, saponins in alfalfa diet, chlorophyll in concentrations, genetic susceptibility
  68. What weather conditions are conducive to bloat developing in cattle on pasture?
    longer days, lower maximum and higher minimum temp
  69. How does the time of day when cattle are turned out affect the development of frothy bloat?
    increased incidence when cattle are turned out earlier in the day
  70. __(2)__ reduce the incidence of bloat in a herd, but do not prevent it.
    Monensin and lasalocid
  71. _________ prevents bloat.
    Poloxalene (TheraBloat)
  72. 5 ways to reduce the incidence of bloat in a herd.
    legume has begun to flower, cattle moved to pasture after noon, continuous grazing (not interrupted), Poloxalene as supplement, producer must know frost does not decrease bloat potential
  73. Unlike pasture bloat, feedlot bloat is associated with production of _________.
    microbial slime
  74. What prevent eructation with feedlot frothy bloat?
    cardia of the stomach becomes coated with slime
  75. In management of feedlot frothy bloat, _______ is a better grain to feed.
    wheat
  76. In prevention of feedlot frothy bloat, grass and silage... (3)
    decrease fermentation, increase salivation and rumen pH (good!)
  77. How long of an adaptation period to the feedlot should cattle be allowed in order to prevent frothy bloat?
    14-21 days
  78. What additive can be used to prevent feedlot frothy bloat? (4)
    ionophores (reduce slime, decreased severity), pluronics (therabloat), salt (reduce intake), mineral oil
  79. How do you treat frothy bloat? (3)
    Poloxalene (TheraBloat), vegetable oils, rumenotomy
  80. How do you treat free gas bloat?
    tube and remove gas

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