Phsy

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Phsy
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Phsy
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  1. 1. The method of introspection was used by Edward Titchener to identify
    A) inherited traits.
    B) unconscious motives.
    C) sensory experiences.
    D) maladaptive behaviors.
    C) sensory experiences.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Research participants who carefully observe and report their immediate thoughts and feelings in response to different musical sounds are using the method known as
    A) spaced practice.
    B) psychoanalysis.
    C) introspection.
    D) natural selection.
    C) introspection.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. 3. Ivan Pavlov pioneered the study of
    A) mental illness.
    B) personality.
    C) learning.
    D) perception.
    C) learning.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. The growth potential of healthy people was emphasized by
    A) Freudian psychology.
    B) cognitive neuroscience.
    C) structuralism.
    D) humanistic psychology.
    D) humanistic psychology.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. 5. In studying human behavior, contemporary psychologists rely most heavily on
    A) natural selection.
    B) naturalistic observation.
    C) psychoanalysis.
    D) science.
    D) science.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Angie wonders whether her calm and relaxed personality style was learned or inherited. Angie's concern is most directly relevant to the issue of
    A) behavior versus mental processes. 
    B) conscious mind versus unconscious mind.
    C) observation versus introspection.
    D) nature versus nurture.
    D) nature versus nurture.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Charles Darwin suggested that the evolution of living organisms is guided by
    A) introspection.
    B) rational thought.
    C) natural selection.
    D) unconscious motives.
    C) natural selection.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. A biopsychosocial approach is one that requires the use of
    A) multiple levels of analysis.
    B) clinical psychology.
    C) introspection.
    D) SQ3R.
    A) multiple levels of analysis.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Poor nutrition, family stress, and memory difficulties have all contributed to Mr. Leonard's depression. Effectively explaining the full complexity of his problems requires
    A) introspection.
    B) psychoanalysis.
    C) an evolutionary level of analysis.
    D) a biopsychosocial approach.
    D) a biopsychosocial approach.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Which perspective is most directly concerned with how the physical properties of the brain influence behavior and mental states?
    A) social-cultural
    B) behavioral
    C) psychodynamic
    D) neuroscience
    D) neuroscience
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. 11. The behavior genetics perspective would be most directly concerned with assessing the relative influences of
    A) naturalistic observation and introspection.
    B) conscious and unconscious motives.
    C) behavior and mental processes.
    D) nature and nurture.
    D) nature and nurture.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Which psychological perspective highlights the manner in which people encode, process, store, and retrieve information?
    A) behavioral
    B) cognitive
    C) behavior genetics
    D) evolutionary
    B) cognitive
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Which psychological perspective is most likely to examine how group membership influences individual attitudes and behaviors?
    A) neuroscience
    B) evolutionary
    C) psychodynamic
    D) social-cultural
    D) social-cultural
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Dr. Tiao conducts basic research on the effects of head injuries on people's problem-solving and abstract-reasoning skills. Which psychological specialty does her research best represent?
    A) personality psychology
    B) industrial/organizational psychology
    C) developmental psychology
    D) biological psychology
    D) biological psychology
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Dr. Wilcox conducts basic research on the behavioral differences between introverted and extraverted people. Dr.Wilcox is most likely a(n) ________ psychologist.
    A) personality
    B) cognitive
    C) industrial/organizational
    D) biological
    A) personality
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Dr. Ochoa develops tests to accurately identify the most qualified job applicants in a large manufacturing firm. Which psychological specialty does Dr. Ochoa's work best represent?
    A) clinical psychology
    B) industrial/organizational psychology
    C) biological psychology
    D) developmental psychology
    B) industrial/organizational psychology
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Working in a community mental health center, Dr. Thatcher treats adults who suffer from severe depression. Dr. Thatcher is most likely a(n) ________ psychologist.
    A) clinical
    B) developmental
    C) personality
    D) industrial/organizational
    A) clinical
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Which specialists are the most likely to prescribe a drug for the treatment of a psychological disorder?
    A) personality psychologists
    B) psychiatrists
    C) clinical psychologists
    D) developmental psychologists
    B) psychiatrists
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. The SQ3R method encourages students to
    A) read each text chapter without any preconceptions about what they might learn.
    B) read entire text chapters at one sitting in order to maximize comprehension.
    C) read each text chapter quickly in order to minimize boredom.
    D) survey a text chapter's organization before actually reading the chapter itself.
    D) survey a text chapter's organization before actually reading the chapter itself.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. In answering multiple-choice test items, smart test-takers are best advised to
    A) carefully imagine how each of the alternative answers might be correct.
    B) check off as correct the first answer they read that seems to be right.
    C) recall the correct answer to each question before reading the alternative answers.
    D) avoid guessing the answer on any items that do not appear to have a correct answer.
    C) recall the correct answer to each question before reading the alternative answers.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. After the U.S. occupation of Iraq led to a civil war rather than a peaceful democracy, some commentators perceived the
    result as inevitable. This perception best illustrates
    A) illusory correlation.
    B) hindsight bias.
    C) the standard deviation
    D) the placebo effect.
    B) hindsight bias.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Hindsight bias leads people to perceive research findings as
    A) unpredictable.
    B) unsurprising.
    C) unreplicable.
    D) inexplicable.
    B) unsurprising.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. According to Emily's grandfather, Adolf Hitler's obvious emotional instability made it clear from the beginning days of
    his international conflicts that Germany would inevitably lose World War II. The grandfather's claim best illustrates
    A) random sampling.
    B) naturalistic observation.
    C) hindsight bias.
    D) illusory correlation.
    C) hindsight bias.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. As students prepare for a test, they often believe that they understand the course material better than they actually do.
    This best illustrates
    A) the placebo effect.
    B) illusory correlation.
    C) overconfidence.
    D) critical thinking.
    C) overconfidence.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. After predicting world events, such as whether Quebec would separate from Canada, experts maintained that they were “almost right.” This attitude is an example of
    A) scatterplots.
    B) the double-blind procedure.
    C) overconfidence.
    D) random assignment.
    C) overconfidence.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Psychologists attempt to let the facts speak for themselves by using an approach that is best described as
    A) naturalistic.
    B) correlational.
    C) operational.
    D) empirical.
    D) empirical.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. As scientists, psychologists adopt an attitude of skepticism because they believe that
    A) people are unlikely to reveal what they are really thinking.
    B) most commonsense ideas about human behavior are wrong.
    C) claims about human behavior need to be supported with evidence.
    D) events never occur randomly.
    C) claims about human behavior need to be supported with evidence.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Critical thinkers can best be described as
    A) cynical.
    B) impatient
    C) questioning.
    D) pessimistic.
    C) questioning.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Professor O'Brian has used correlational evidence to reach a potentially incorrect conclusion about a cause-effect relationship. Questioning the validity of drawing this conclusion from the evidence best illustrates
    A) the placebo effect.
    B) naturalistic observation.
    C) critical thinking.
    D) the double-blind procedure.
    C) critical thinking.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. According to Professor Fayad, we like people who like us because their affection for us boosts our own self-esteem. His idea is an example of
    A) illusory correlation.
    B) hindsight bias.
    C) replication.
    D) a theory.
    D) a theory.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. In reporting the effect of drinking alcohol on self-consciousness, psychological researchers would specify exactly how they measured self-consciousness. They are thereby providing a(n)
    A) case study.
    B) double-blind procedure.
    C) operational definition.
    D) experimental hypothesis.
    C) operational definition.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Replication involves
    A) repeating an earlier research study.
    B) rejecting ideas that cannot be scientifically tested.
    C) perceiving order in random events.
    D) the selection of random samples. 
    A) repeating an earlier research study.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Professor Bolden claims that his experimental research demonstrates that eating an apple every day improves children's reading skills. How might he best offer further support for the reliability of this finding?
    A) naturalistic observation
    B) correlational research
    C) replication
    D) case studies
    C) replication
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. To better understand how brain malfunctions influence behavior, Dr. Mosher extensively and carefully observes and questions two stroke victims. Which research method is Dr. Mosher using?
    A) experimentation
    B) the survey
    C) random sampling
    D) the case study
    D) the case study
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. Those who rely on the case-study method need to be especially alert to the dangers of
    A) random assignment.
    B) hindsight bias.
    C) replication.
    D) false generalization
    B) hindsight bias.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. A majority of respondents in a national survey agreed that “classroom prayer should not be allowed in public schools.” Only 33 percent of respondents in a similar survey agreed that “classroom prayer in public schools should be banned.” These differing findings best illustrate the importance of
    A) hindsight bias.
    B) the placebo effect.
    C) wording effects.
    D) random assignment.
    C) wording effects.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. The whole group from which samples may be drawn is called a(n)
    A) case study.
    B) population.
    C) independent variable.
    D) control condition.
    B) population.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. Web site polls and call-in phone surveys often yield unrepresentative results because they fail to use
    A) scatterplots.
    B) double-blind procedures
    C) random sampling.
    D) operational definitions.
    C) random sampling.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. To describe the behavior of animals in their native habitats, researchers are most likely to make use of
    A) experimental methods.
    B) survey research.
    C) naturalistic observation.
    D) random assignment.
    C) naturalistic observation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. Researchers make no effort to manipulate or control variables when they engage in
    A) naturalistic observation.
    B) replication.
    C) the double-blind procedure.
    D) experimentation.
    A) naturalistic observation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. Which of the following statistical measures is most helpful for indicating the extent to which high school grades predict college or university grades?
    A) median
    B) correlation coefficient
    C) standard deviation
    D) range
    B) correlation coefficient
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. A correlation coefficient is a statistical measure of the
    A) statistical significance of a difference between two sample means.
    B) extent to which two factors vary together.
    C) difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
    D) frequency of scores at each level of some measure.
    B) extent to which two factors vary together.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. If the points on a scatterplot are clustered in a pattern that extends from lower left to upper right, this would suggest that the two variables depicted are
    A) normally distributed.
    B) not correlated.
    C) negatively correlated.
    D) positively correlated.
    D) positively correlated.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. A researcher would be most likely to discover a negative correlation between
    A) education and personal wealth.
    B) self-esteem and depression.
    C) intelligence and academic success.
    D) body height and body weight. 
    B) self-esteem and depression.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. If university graduates typically earn more money than high school graduates, this would indicate that level of education and income are
    A) negatively correlated
    B) independent variables.
    C) positively correlated.
    D) dependent variables.
    C) positively correlated.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. If those with low self-esteem are also particularly likely to suffer from depression, this would not necessarily indicate that low self-esteem triggers negative emotions because
    A) sampling extreme cases leads to false generalizations.
    B) correlation does not prove causation.
    C) events often seem more probable in hindsight.
    D) random sequences often don't look random.
    B) correlation does not prove causation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. The perception of a relationship between two variables where none exists is called
    A) illusory correlation.
    B) the placebo effect.
    C) an illusion of control.
    D) hindsight bias.
    A) illusory correlation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. The belief that weather conditions signal the onset of arthritis pain best illustrates
    A) an illusory correlation.
    B) random sampling
    C) hindsight bias.
    D) an illusion of control.
    A) an illusory correlation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. If someone were to flip a coin six times, which of the following sequences of heads (H) and tails (T) would be most
    likely?
    A) H H H T T T
    B) H T T H T H
    C) All of these sequences would be equally likely.
    D) H H H H H H
    C) All of these sequences would be equally likely.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. The King James Version of the Bible was completed when William Shakespeare was 46 years old. In Psalm 46 of this translation, the forty-sixth word is “shake,” and the forty-sixth word from the end is “spear.” Before concluding that the biblical translators were trying to be humorous with these specific word placements, you would be best advised to recognize the danger of
    A) assuming that most people share your opinions.
    B) randomly sampling biblical passages.
    C) generalizing from extreme examples.
    D) perceiving order in coincidental events.
    D) perceiving order in coincidental events.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. A research method in which an investigator manipulates factors that potentially produce a particular behavior is called a(n)
    A) experiment.
    B) case study.
    C) correlation.
    D) survey.
    A) experiment.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. The experiment is a research method in which
    A) a random sample of individuals are questioned regarding their opinions and behaviors.
    B) an individual is studied in great depth.
    C) an investigator manipulates one or more variables that might affect behavior.
    D) individuals are carefully observed in their natural environment.
    C) an investigator manipulates one or more variables that might affect behavior.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. To minimize any preexisting differences between participants who are in different conditions of an experiment, psychologists make use of
    A) correlation.
    B) random sampling.
    C) random assignment.
    D) replication.
    B) random sampling.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. To minimize the extent to which placebo effects contribute to outcome differences between experimental and control groups in a drug-treatment study, researchers are likely to make use of
    A) the double-blind procedure.
    B) replication.
    C) operational definitions.
    D) random sampling.
    A) the double-blind procedure.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. Abdul has volunteered to participate in an experiment evaluating the effectiveness of aspirin. Neither he nor the experimenters know whether the pills he takes during the experiment contain aspirin or are merely placebos. The investigators are apparently making use of
    A) random sampling.
    B) naturalistic observation.
    C) the double-blind procedure.
    D) illusory correlation.
    C) the double-blind procedure.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. To provide a baseline against which they can evaluate the effects of a specific treatment, experimenters make use of a(n)
    A) control group.
    B) experimental group.
    C) independent variable.
    D) dependent variable.
    A) control group.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. To study some effects of alcohol consumption, Dr. Chu tested the physical coordination skills of 21-year-old men who had just drunk either 4, 2, or 0 ounces of alcohol. In this study, the independent variable consisted of
    A) the amount of alcohol consumed.
    B) the effects of alcohol consumption.
    C) the physical coordination skills of the research participants.
    D) the age of the research participants.
    A) the amount of alcohol consumed.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. Measures of central tendency are most useful for
    A) summarizing data.
    B) constructing scatterplots.
    C) random assignment.
    D) random sampling.
    A) summarizing data.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. Six different students spent $10, $13, $2, $12, $13, and $4, respectively, on entertainment. The mode of this group's
    entertainment expenditures is
    A) $12.
    B) $11.
    C) $9.
    D) $13
    D) $13
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. In any distribution of scores, an equal number of scores are both greater than and less than
    A) the median.
    B) the mean.
    C) any of these measures of central tendency
    D) the mode.
    A) the median.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. Which of the following provides a rough indication of the degree of variation among a set of scores?
    A) median
    B) correlation coefficient
    C) range
    D) scatterplot
    C) range
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. Professor Woo noticed that the distribution of students' scores on her last biology test had an extremely small standard deviation. This indicates that the
    A) test was a poor measure of the students' knowledge.
    B) test was given to a very small class of students.
    C) students generally performed very well on the test.
    D) students' scores tended to be very similar to one another
    D) students' scores tended to be very similar to one another
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  63. If half the students at Quincy University have blue eyes, which of the following events is most probable?
    A) All of these answers are equally probable.
    B) In a class consisting of 15 students, 80% or more have blue eyes.
    C) In a class consisting of 30 students, 80% or more have blue eyes.
    D) In a class consisting of 45 students, 80% or more have blue eyes.
    B) In a class consisting of 15 students, 80% or more have blue eyes.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. Psychology experiments are typically designed to
    A) test principles that help explain behavior.
    B) observe a truly random sample of human or animal behavior.
    C) re-create the naturally occurring conditions that influence people's daily behaviors.
    D) observe behaviors that are unobservable outside the laboratory.
    A) test principles that help explain behavior.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. Psychologists report that genders differ in their risk of
    A) alcohol dependence.
    B) all of these problems.
    C) depression.
    D) eating disorders.
    B) all of these problems.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. Psychologists study animals because
    A) animal physiology is often simpler and easier to understand than human physiology is.
    B) it is more permissible to conduct certain types of research with animals than with humans.
    C) they want to understand how different species think and behave.
    D) of all of these reasons.
    D) of all of these reasons.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. Psychologists occasionally deceive research participants about the true purpose of an experiment in order to prevent them from
    A) realizing that their privacy is being violated.
    B) deciding that they really don't want to take part in the experiment.
    C) trying to confirm the experimenters' predictions.
    D) worrying about the potential harm or discomfort they may experience.
    C) trying to confirm the experimenters' predictions.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  68. Ethical principles developed by the American Psychological Association and the British Psychological Society urge psychological investigators to
    A) ensure that research participants give informed consent before participating in the research.
    B) forewarn potential research participants of the exact hypotheses that the research will test.
    C) avoid the use of laboratory experiments when the behaviors of interest can be directly observed in natural settings.
    D) avoid the use of monetary incentives in recruiting people to participate in research.
    A) ensure that research participants give informed consent before participating in the research.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  69. The nineteenth-century theory that bumps on the skull reveal a person's abilities and traits is called
    A) evolutionary psychology.
    B) behavior genetics.
    C) phrenology
    D) biological psychology.
    C) phrenology
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  70. Who first suggested that different regions of the brain control different aspects of behavior?
    A) Franz Gall
    B) Aristotle
    C) Charles Sherrington
    D) Plato
    A) Franz Gall
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  71. Because neural communication occurs within the context of both cultural influences and individual mental processes, people are best understood as
    A) neural prosthetics.
    B) biopsychosocial systems.
    C) genetic profiles.
    D) action potentials.
    B) biopsychosocial systems.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  72. The branching extensions of nerve cells that receive incoming signals from sensory receptors or from other neurons are called the
    A) neurotransmitters
    B) synapses.
    C) dendrites.
    D) axons.
    C) dendrites.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  73. The slowdown of neural communication in multiple sclerosis involves a degeneration of the
    A) corpus callosum.
    B) pituitary gland.
    C) amygdala.
    D) myelin sheath.
    D) myelin sheath.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  74. The myelin sheath helps to increase the ________ of neural impulses.
    A) frequency
    B) intensity
    C) threshold
    D) speed
    D) speed
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  75. The junctions where impulses are chemically transmitted from one neuron to another are called
    A) synapses.
    B) thresholds.
    C) association areas.
    D) vesicles.
    A) synapses.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  76. Neurotransmitter receptor sites are primarily located on the
    A) myelin sheath.
    B) dendrites.
    C) glial cells.
    D) axon terminals.
    B) dendrites.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  77. Endorphins are neurotransmitter molecules similar to
    A) morphine.
    B) dopamine.
    C) acetylcholine.
    D) serotonin.
    A) morphine.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  78. The pain of childbirth is most likely to be reduced by the release of
    A) endorphins.
    B) dopamine.
    C) glutamate.
    D) acetylcholine.
    A) endorphins.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  79. Prozac is an antidepressant drug that increases the level of the neurotransmitter
    A) serotonin.
    B) ACh.
    C) GABA.
    D) dopamine.
    A) serotonin.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  80. A drug that blocks a neurotransmitter’s functioning is called a(n)
    A) agonist.
    B) opiate.
    C) antagonist
    D) glutamate.
    B) opiate.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  81. The body's speedy electrochemical information system is called the
    A) cerebral cortex.
    B) nervous system.
    C) circulatory system.
    D) endocrine system
    B) nervous system.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  82. For you to be able to run, ________ must relay messages from your central nervous system to your leg muscles.
    A) the autonomic nervous system
    B) the reticular formation
    C) motor neurons
    D) interneurons
    C) motor neurons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  83. The neurons of the central nervous system cluster into work groups known as
    A) interneurons.
    B) stem cells.
    C) lesions.
    D) neural networks.
    D) neural networks.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  84. The release of epinephrine into the bloodstream is most likely to
    A) accelerate heartbeat.
    B) stimulate digestion.
    C) lower blood sugar.
    D) lower blood pressure.
    B) stimulate digestion.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  85. The chemical messengers of the endocrine system are called
    A) genes
    B) hormones.
    C) neurotransmitters.
    D) agonists.
    B) hormones.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  86. Which endocrine gland regulates body growth?
    A) pituitary
    B) thyroid
    C) pancreas
    D) adrenal
    A) pituitary
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  87. A brain lesion refers to ________ of brain tissue.
    A) xray photography
    B) destruction
    C) electrical stimulation
    D) radioactive bombardment
    B) destruction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  88. Recording electrodes are placed directly on the scalp to produce a(n)
    A) fMRI.
    B) PET scan.
    C) MRI.
    D) EEG.
    D) EEG.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  89. Which technique involves the use of magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computergenerated images of the
    brain's soft tissues?
    A) EEG
    B) PET scan
    C) hemispherectomy
    D) MRI
    D) MRI
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  90. James Olds and Peter Milner discovered that rats would willingly cross an electrified floor in order to electrically
    stimulate areas within their
    A) hypothalamus.
    B) cerebellum.
    C) sensory cortex.
    D) reticular formation.
    A) hypothalamus.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  91. Which neural center in the limbic system plays a central role in emotions such as aggression and fear?
    A) thalamus
    B) cerebellum
    C) medulla
    D) amygdala
    D) amygdala
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  92. Which region of the human brain best distinguishes us from other animals?
    A) hypothalamus
    B) cerebral cortex
    C) reticular formation
    D) limbic system
    B) cerebral cortex
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  93. An area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements is called the
    A) frontal association area
    B) thalamus.
    C) reticular formation.
    D) motor cortex.
    D) motor cortex.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  94. If a neurosurgeon directly stimulated parts of your sensory cortex, which of the following would you most likely
    experience?
    A) a sense of being touched
    B) flashes of light
    C) indistinct odors
    D) repetitive sounds
    A) a sense of being touched
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  95. Phineas Gage underwent a dramatic personality change after a tamping iron inflicted massive damage to his ________
    lobes.
    A) frontal
    B) temporal
    C) occipital
    D) parietal
    A) frontal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  96. One stroke patient was put to work cleaning tables, with his good arm and hand restrained. Slowly, the bad arm
    recovered its skills. He gradually learned to write again and even to play tennis. This best illustrates the value of
    A) hemispherectomy.
    B) plasticity.
    C) neural prosthetics.
    D) reward deficiency syndrome.
    B) plasticity.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  97. Visual information processing in the temporal lobe of Deaf people whose native language is sign best illustrates
    A) neural prosthetics.
    B) plasticity.
    C) tomography.
    D) hemispherectomy.
    B) plasticity.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  98. Information is most quickly transmitted from one cerebral hemisphere to the other by the
    A) reticular formation
    B) limbic system.
    C) motor cortex.
    D) corpus callosum.
    D) corpus callosum.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  99. The left cerebral hemisphere is typically superior to the right in
    A) musical abilities
    B) spatial reasoning.
    C) speech production.
    D) visual perception.
    C) speech production.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  100. A failure to recognize that one's arm or leg is part of one's self is most likely to be associated with damage to the
    A) hypothalamus.
    B) sympathetic nervous system.
    C) right hemisphere.
    D) amygdala.
    C) right hemisphere.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  101. Research on left-handedness indicates that
    A) left-handers typically have a smaller corpus callosum than right-handers.
    B) left-handers generally demonstrate less mathematical competence than right-handers.
    C) left-handers are less likely than right-handers to process speech primarily in their left hemisphere.
    D) twice as many women as men are left-handed.
    C) left-handers are less likely than right-handers to process speech primarily in their left hemisphere.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  102. Behaviorism encouraged psychologists to ignore the study of
    A) consciousness.
    B) socialization.
    C) addiction.
    D) insomnia.
    A) consciousness.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  103. After 1960, the study of consciousness had been revived by psychologists' renewed interest in
    A) socialization.
    B) emotion.
    C) behavior genetics.
    D) mental processes.
    D) mental processes.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  104. The interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with our mental processes is known as
    A) behavior genetics.
    B) evolutionary psychology
    C) cognitive neuroscience.
    D) behaviorism
    C) cognitive neuroscience.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  105. Brain damage left one woman unable to recognize the width of a block even though she could grasp it with just the right finger-thumb distance. This unusual case illustrates the importance of our normal capacity for
    A) posthypnotic suggestion.
    B) dual processing.
    C) hallucinations.
    D) neuroadaptation.
    B) dual processing.
  106. Unconscious information processing is more likely than conscious processing to
    A) occur slowly.  
    B) be limited in capacity.
    C) occur simultaneously on several tracks.
    D) contribute to effective problem solving.
    C) occur simultaneously on several tracks.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  107. You typically fail to consciously perceive that your own nose is in your line of vision. This best illustrates
    A) change blindness.
    B) neuroadaptation.
    C) selective attention.
    D) dissociation.
    C) selective attention.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  108. The ability to pay attention to only one voice at a time is called
    A) the cocktail party effect.
    B) neuroadaptation.
    C) change blindness.
    D) dual processing.
    A) the cocktail party effect.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  109. Standing in the checkout line at the grocery store, Jerry kept looking at his watch to see the time. As a result, he failed to see that a store employee was being robbed by a person just in front of him. Jerry most clearly suffered
    A) REM rebound.
    B) age regression.
    C) inattentional blindness.
    D) narcolepsy.
    C) inattentional blindness.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  110. The impact of circadian rhythms is best illustrated by
    A) the different study habits of men and women.
    B) fluctuations in energy level and alertness across the span of a day.
    C) the different personalities of people born during different months of the year.
    D) the differing musical preferences of younger and older persons.
    B) fluctuations in energy level and alertness across the span of a day.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  111. Cindi prefers to take exams in the late afternoon rather than during the morning, because her energy level and ability to concentrate are better at that time. Her experience most likely reflects the influence of the
    A) hypnagogic state.
    B) circadian rhythm.
    C) menstrual cycle.
    D) REM rebound.
    B) circadian rhythm.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  112. After four years of working nights, Raymond now works days. His present difficulty in getting to sleep at night is most likely due to a disruption of his normal
    A) sleep apnea.
    B) hypnagogic sensations.
    C) alpha wave pattern.
    D) circadian rhythm.
    D) circadian rhythm.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  113. When people are experiencing vivid dreams
    A) their slow brainwave patterns indicate that they are deeply asleep.
    B) their eyes are likely to move under their closed eyelids.
    C) they are more likely to sleepwalk than during any other stage of sleep.
    D) their bodies often move in accordance with what they dream.
    B) their eyes are likely to move under their closed eyelids.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  114. After Carlos had been asleep for about an hour and a half, his heart began to beat faster, his breathing became fast and irregular, and his closed eyes began to dart back and forth. Carlos was most likely experiencing
    A) sleep apnea.
    B) narcolepsy.
    C) REM sleep.
    D) Stage 4 sleep.
    C) REM sleep.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  115. Feli has been asleep for three hours. As he continues to sleep, we can expect that
    A) Stage 3 sleep will diminish and that Stage 4 sleep will increase in duration.
    B) REM sleep will diminish and that Stage 3 sleep will increase in duration.
    C) Stage 4 sleep will diminish and that REM sleep will increase in duration.
    D) Stage 4 sleep will diminish and that Stage 3 sleep will increase in duration.
    C) Stage 4 sleep will diminish and that REM sleep will increase in duration.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  116. Chronic sleep debt is most likely to promote
    A) insomnia.
    B) obesity.
    C) night terrors.
    D) sleep apnea.
    B) obesity.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  117. Insomnia is a disorder involving
    A) recurring difficulty in falling or staying asleep.
    B) the cessation of breathing during sleep.
    C) uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness.
    D) the excessive use of sleeping pills or other drugs that induce sleep.
    A) recurring difficulty in falling or staying asleep.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  118. Eighty-year-old Mrs. West feels she has trouble falling asleep at night. She typically gets only 6 hours of sleep every 24 hours. What should she do about this?
    A) drink an alcoholic beverage before bedtime
    B) take a sleeping pill every night
    C) relax and remind herself that her sleep patterns are normal
    D) sleep with the bedroom lights on
    C) relax and remind herself that her sleep patterns are normal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  119. The disorder involving uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness is known as
    A) sleep apnea.
    B) paradoxical sleep.
    C) insomnia.
    D) narcolepsy.
    D) narcolepsy.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  120. Sleep apnea is a disorder involving
    A) the excessive use of sleeping pills or other sleep-inducing drugs
    B) temporary cessations of breathing during sleep.
    C) hypnagogic sensations of falling or floating weightlessly.
    D) periodic uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness.
    B) temporary cessations of breathing during sleep.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  121. Mr. Dayton occasionally stops breathing while sleeping. He wakes up to snort air for a few seconds before falling back to sleep. Mrs. Dayton complains that her husband snores. Clearly, Mr. Dayton suffers from
    A) narcolepsy.
    B) night terrors.
    C) insomnia.
    D) sleep apnea.
    D) sleep apnea.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  122. About three hours after he falls asleep, Bobby often sits up in bed screaming incoherently. His mother tries to awaken him, but with no success. The next morning, he remembers nothing. It appears that Bobby suffers from
    A) sleep apnea.
    B) night terrors.
    C) sleep spindles.
    D) narcolepsy.
    B) night terrors.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  123. Which sleep disorder is more likely to be experienced by children than by adults?
    A) insomnia
    B) night terrors
    C) sleep apnea
    D) narcolepsy
    B) night terrors
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  124. According to Freud, the manifest content of a dream refers to the
    A) underlying meaning of a dream
    B) rapid eye movements during a dream.
    C) remembered story line of a dream.
    D) hypnagogic sensations preceding a dream. 
    C) remembered story line of a dream.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  125. When dreamers' faces were lightly sprayed with cold water, they were more likely than other dreamers to experience
    A) sleep apnea.
    B) paradoxical sleep.
    C) dreams about water.
    D) hypnagogic sensations.
    C) dreams about water.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  126. According to Freud, the personally threatening and censored meaning of a dream is its
    A) dissociated content.
    B) latent content.
    C) manifest content.
    D) hallucinatory content
    B) latent content.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  127. Josef, a high school student, tells his therapist that he has had a recurring dream in which he hunts and kills a ferocious tiger. The therapist explains that the dream reflects Josef's unresolved feelings of hostility toward his father. According to Freud, the therapist is revealing the possible ________ content of Josef's dream.
    A) circadian
    B) manifest
    C) latent
    D) dissociated
    D) dissociated
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  128. The activation-synthesis theory best helps to explain why
    A) dreams typically express unacceptable feelings in a symbolically disguised form.
    B) most dreams are realistic portrayals of pleasant life events.
    C) individuals with sleep apnea are unable to recall any of their dreams.
    D) people often experience sudden visual images during REM sleep.
    D) people often experience sudden visual images during REM sleep.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  129. 28. As a participant in a sleep-research study for the past three nights, Tim has been repeatedly disturbed during REM sleep. Tonight, when allowed to sleep undisturbed, Tim will likely experience
    A) dissociation.
    B) insomnia.
    C) sleep apnea.
    D) an increase in REM sleep.
    D) an increase in REM sleep.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  130. Twenty-two-year-old Felicia scores high in hypnotic responsiveness as measured by the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale. Research suggests that Felicia may also have
    A) below-average intelligence.
    B) an above-average ability to hypnotize others.
    C) difficulty keeping her attention focused on any specific task.
    D) a rich fantasy life.
    D) a rich fantasy life.
  131. People are particularly responsive to hypnosis if they
    A) strongly expect that they can be hypnotized.
    B) suffer a physical or psychological dependence on alcohol.
    C) are below average in intelligence and education.
    D) are easily distracted and have difficulty focusing attention.
    A) strongly expect that they can be hypnotized.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  132. As members of the human family, we all share a common
    A) gender schema.
    B) biological heritage.
    C) gender role.
    D) personal space.
    B) biological heritage.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  133. External influences on development such as social support are said to constitute our
    A) temperament.
    B) genome.
    C) collectivism.
    D) environment.
    D) environment.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  134. The threadlike structures that contain genes are called
    A) genomes.
    B) synapses.
    C) schemas.
    D) chromosomes.
    D) chromosomes.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  135. The nucleus of your body cells contains
    A) all of these elements.
    B) genes.
    C) DNA molecules.
    D) chromosomes.
    A) all of these elements.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  136. For every three sets of identical twins, one pair of identical twins is likely to have
    A) two separate placentas.
    B) only one sex chromosome.
    C) two different genomes.
    D) an extra set of chromosomes.
    A) two separate placentas.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  137. Fraternal twins originate from the fertilization of
    A) two egg cells by a single sperm cell.
    B) a single egg cell by two sperm cells.
    C) two egg cells by two sperm cells.
    D) a single egg cell by a single sperm cell. 
    C) two egg cells by two sperm cells.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  138. Compared with identical twins, fraternal twins are
    A) more likely to be the same sex and more likely to be similar in extraversion.
    B) more likely to be the same sex and less likely to be similar in extraversion.
    C) less likely to be the same sex and less likely to be similar in extraversion.
    D) less likely to be the same sex and equally likely to be similar in extraversion
    C) less likely to be the same sex and less likely to be similar in extraversion.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  139. The best reason to be cautious about attributing all the personality similarities of separated twins to genetic factors is that
    A) adopted children's personalities are highly similar to those of their adoptive parents.
    B) infant temperaments have a strong impact on personality development.
    C) adoption agencies tend to place separated twins in similar homes.
    D) home environments have less impact on personality than does peer influence.
    C) adoption agencies tend to place separated twins in similar homes.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  140. Identical twins separated at birth and raised in completely different cultures would be most likely to have similar
    A) religious beliefs.
    B) temperaments.
    C) gender schemas.
    D) norms.
    B) temperaments.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  141. Temperament is an individual's characteristic level of
    A) intelligence.
    B) social connectedness.
    C) physical health.
    D) emotional reactivity.
    D) emotional reactivity.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  142. Lynnae is usually timid and fearful, whereas her sister Eileen is typically relaxed and cheerful. The two sisters are most strikingly different in
    A) gender schemas.
    B) physical health.
    C) temperament
    D) brain maturation.
    C) temperament
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  143. Today's adults are taller and heavier than those of a century ago. The differences between these generational groups
    illustrate the impact of
    A) genetics.
    B) nutrition.
    C) the pruning process.
    D) temperament.
    B) nutrition.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  144. Pinpointing genes that put people at risk for genetically influenced disorders such as depression and schizophrenia best
    illustrates the goals of
    A) social learning theorists. 
    B) molecular geneticists.
    C) Freudian psychiatrists.
    D) evolutionary psychologists.
    D) evolutionary psychologists.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  145. Compared with men, women are more likely to talk with others to
    A) express their unique opinions.
    B) explore relationships.
    C) demonstrate leadership skills.
    D) communicate solutions. 
    B) explore relationships.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  146. A baby girl receives a(n)
    A) Y chromosome from her father.
    C) Y chromosome from her father and mother.
    B) Y chromosome from her mother.
    D) X chromosome from her father and mother.
    D) X chromosome from her father and mother
  147. Sets of expected behaviors for males and for females are called
    A) gender roles.
    B) sexual norms.
    C) gender types
    D) gender identities.
    A) gender roles.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  148. A person's sense of being male or female is his or her gender
    A) type.
    B) schema.
    C) role.
    D) identity.
    D) identity.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  149. The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role is called
    A) gender typing.
    B) behavior genetics.
    C) gender identification.
    D) heritability.
    A) gender typing.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  150. The tendency to classify various occupations as masculine or feminine has often led men and women to limit themselves to an unnecessarily restricted range of career options. This best illustrates the impact of
    A) the pruning process.
    B) temperament.
    C) gender schemas.
    D) the X chromosome.
    C) gender schemas.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  151. An integrated understanding of gender differences in behavior in terms of gender norms, sex-related hormones, and
    individual expectations regarding gender-appropriate behavior is most clearly provided by
    A) collectivism.
    B) evolutionary psychology
    C) a biopsychosocial approach.
    D) the pruning process.
    C) a biopsychosocial approach.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  152. By insisting that humans are “nothing but” products of nature and nurture, we run the greatest risk of undermining
    A) gender identity
    B) individual responsibility.
    C) natural selection.
    D) collectivism.
    B) individual responsibility.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  153. The branch of psychology that systematically focuses on the physical, cognitive, and social changes that occur
    throughout the life cycle is called
    A) personality psychology.
    B) social psychology.  
    C) biological psychology.
    D) developmental psychology.
    D) developmental psychology.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  154. One of the three major issues in developmental psychology involves the study of
    A) habituation.
    B) infantile amnesia.
    C) primary sex characteristics.
    D) personality stability.
    A) habituation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  155. A fertilized egg is called a(n)
    A) fetus.
    B) zygote.
    C) teratogen.
    D) embryo.
    B) zygote.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  156. From 2 weeks to 8 weeks after conception, the human organism is known as a(n)
    A) embryo.
    B) ovum
    C) zygote.
    D) fetus.
    A) embryo.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  157. The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth is known as a(n)
    A) zygote.
    B) fetus.
    C) embryo.
    D) ovum.
    B) fetus.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  158. Newborn infants typically prefer their mother's voice over their father's voice because
    A) their reflexes are naturally triggered by higher-pitched sounds.
    B) they rapidly habituate to lower-pitched male voices.
    C) they form an emotional attachment to their mother during breast feeding.
    D) they become familiar with their mother's voice before they are born.
    D) they become familiar with their mother's voice before they are born.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  159. . Harmful chemicals or viruses that can be transferred from a mother to her developing fetus are called
    A) schemas.
    B) attachments.
    C) teratogens.
    D) zygotes.
    C) teratogens.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  160. Sierra, a 28-year-old heroin addict, is pregnant. Her baby will be born
    A) visually impaired.
    B) hyperactive
    C) with schizophrenia.
    D) a heroin addict.
    D) a heroin addict.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  161. The symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome demonstrate that alcohol is a
    A) hallucinogen.
    B) neurotransmitter.
    C) teratogen.
    D) form of DNA.
    C) teratogen.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  162. Three-month-old Andrew was obviously startled by the first ring of the telephone, but with each subsequent ring he seemed to become less reactive. This best illustrates the process of
    A) accommodation.
    B) conservation.
    C) imprinting.
    D) habituation.
    D) habituation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  163. Research on the perceptual abilities of newborns indicates that they
    A) see nothing for the first 12 hours.
    B) look more at a facelike image than at a bull's-eye pattern.
    C) see only differences in brightness.
    D) recognize the outlines of objects but none of the details.
    B) look more at a facelike image than at a bull's-eye pattern.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  164. Excess neural connections in the brain's association areas are reduced through a process of
    A) accommodation.
    B) pruning.
    C) attachment.
    D) imprinting.
    B) pruning.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  165. Biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience and that enable orderly changes in behavior are referred to as
    A) maturation
    B) generativity.
    C) imprinting.
    D) habituation.
    A) maturation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  166. Putting babies to sleep on their backs to reduce the risk of crib death has been associated with a slight delay in children's
    A) stranger anxiety.
    B) crawling.
    C) bladder control.
    D) walking.
    B) crawling.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  167. It is difficult to successfully train many children to walk before they are 10 months old. This best illustrates the
    importance of
    A) assimilation.
    B) maturation.
    C) imprinting.
    D) accommodation.
    B) maturation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  168. When tethered to a mobile, infants learned the association between
    A) kicking and the mobile's movement
    B) swallowing and the mobile's color.
    C) looking and the mobile's smell. 
    D) rooting and the mobile's sound.
    A) kicking and the mobile's movement
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  169. A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information is called a(n)
    A) neural network.
    B) attachment.
    C) schema.
    D) temperament.
    C) schema.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  170. According to Piaget, assimilation involves
    A) altering existing schemas in order to incorporate new information.
    B) interpreting new experiences in terms of one's current understanding.
    C) the absorption of nutrients into the body for growth and development.
    D) training children to behave in a socially acceptable manner.
    A) altering existing schemas in order to incorporate new information.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  171. Adjusting current schemas to make sense of new information is called
    A) habituation.
    B) maturation.
    C) assimilation.
    D) accommodation.
    C) assimilation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  172. Lisa attempts to retrieve her bottle after her father hides it under a blanket. This suggests that Lisa has developed a sense
    of
    A) conservation.
    B) accommodation.
    C) egocentrism.
    D) object permanence.
    D) object permanence
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  173. The discovery that 5-month-old infants stare longer at numerically impossible outcomes suggests that Piaget
    A) overestimated the continuity of cognitive development
    B) underestimated the cognitive capacities of infants.
    C) underestimated the importance of imprinting on infant attachment.
    D) overestimated the impact of culture on infant intelligence.
    B) underestimated the cognitive capacities of infants.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  174. The principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects is called
    A) conservation.
    B) accommodation
    C) imprinting.
    D) object permanence.
    A) conservation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  175. Although Mr. Tong was obviously busy reading an absorbing novel, his 5-year-old daughter kept interrupting him with comments and questions about the TV cartoons she was watching. Before Mr. Tong becomes irritated with his daughter for being inconsiderate, he should be alerted to Piaget's concept of
    A) conservation.
    B) object permanence.
    C) accommodation.
    D) egocentrism.
    D) egocentrism.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  176. Children's ability to infer other people's intentions and feelings is indicative of their emerging
    A) conservation.
    B) object permanence.
    C) theory of mind.
    D) conventional morality.
    C) theory of mind.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  177. In an experiment, children see a doll named Sally leave her ball in a red cupboard and go away. They then observe another doll, Anne, move the ball to a different location. In asking children where Sally will look for the ball upon her return, the investigators are testing the children’s
    A) theory of mind.
    B) stranger anxiety.
    C) moral reasoning.
    D) habituation.
    A) theory of mind.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  178. Autism is a disorder characterized by deficient social interaction and an impaired
    A) sense of object permanence.
    B) concept of conservation.
    C) capacity for stranger anxiety. 
    D) theory of mind.
    D) theory of mind.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  179. Vygotsky emphasized that parents help children achieve advanced levels of thinking by sharing
    A) schemas.
    B) words.
    C) critical periods.
    D) intimacy.
    B) words.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  180. Young children typically try to stay very close to their parents when they are in an unfamiliar setting. This best illustrates the adaptive value of
    A) egocentrism.
    B) conservation.
    C) habituation.
    D) attachment.
    D) attachment.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  181. The Harlows' studies of infant monkeys raised with artificial mothers suggest that body contact promotes
    A) egocentrism.
    B) stranger anxiety.
    C) attachment.
    D) conservation.
    C) attachment.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  182. Infant monkeys raised with a nourishing wire mother and a nonnourishing cloth mother
    A) shifted their initial preference for the wire mother to the cloth mother as they matured
    B) preferred the nourishing wire mother.
    C) showed no preference for one mother over the other.
    D) preferred the nonnourishing cloth mother.
    B) preferred the nourishing wire mother.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  183. Lambs raised in the barn where the cattle are kept tend to stay near the cattle when subsequently placed in open pasture. This best illustrates a process known as
    A) egocentrism.
    B) accommodation.
    C) conservation.
    D) imprinting.
    D) imprinting.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  184. Even though Alicia was busy playing when her mother came to pick her up from her baby-sitter, she quickly ran to her mother, gesturing to be held. Alicia most clearly showed signs of
    A) stranger anxiety.
    B) secure attachment.
    C) conservation.
    D) egocentrism
    B) secure attachment.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  185. Infants who are unable to predict how their parents will react to their cries for care and attention are especially likely to
    show signs of
    A) conservation.
    B) habituation.
    C) insecure attachment.
    D) egocentrism.
    C) insecure attachment.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  186. Questions about the extent to which secure attachments are influenced by infant temperament or by responsive parenting are most directly relevant to the issue of
    A) continuity or stages.
    B) assimilation or accommodation.
    C) nature or nurture.
    D) stability or change.
    C) nature or nurture.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  187. Securely attached people exhibit less
    A) habituation.
    B) object permanence.
    C) authoritative parenting.
    D) fear of failure.
    D) fear of failure.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  188. Research indicates that most abusive parents report that they themselves were
    A) raised in a permissive and overindulgent environment.
    B) battered or neglected as children.
    C) prevented from interacting with childhood peers.
    D) raised by authoritative parents.
    B) battered or neglected as children.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  189. Dmitri is a typical 6-month-old. When he looks into a mirror he is likely to
    A) recognize the image as himself. 
    B) be somewhat frightened and turn away.
    C) show no interest and ignore what he sees.
    D) reach toward the image as if it were another child.
    D) reach toward the image as if it were another child.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  190. Researchers have sneakily dabbed rouge on young children's noses in order to study the developmental beginnings of
    A) habituation.
    B) self-awareness.
    C) object permanence.
    D) egocentrism.
    B) self-awareness.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  191. Authoritarian parents are especially likely to be
    A) educated.
    B) trusting
    C) inflexible.
    D) permissive.
    C) inflexible.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  192. The Albertsons establish and enforce rules for their children to follow. They give reasons for the rules and invite their teenagers to join in the discussion when new rules are being made. Psychologists would characterize the Albertsons as ________ parents.
    A) authoritative
    B) authoritarian
    C) permissive
    D) legalistic
    A) authoritative
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  193. Which of the following phases of development extends from the beginnings of sexual maturity to independent
    adulthood?
    A) puberty
    B) menopause
    C) menarche
    D) adolescence
    D) adolescence
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  194. . An example of a primary sex characteristic is a
    A) man's larynx.
    B) woman's ovaries.
    C) woman's breasts.
    D) man's adrenal glands.
    B) woman's ovaries.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  195. The speed of neurotransmission in the frontal lobe increases during adolescence due to the growth of
    A) myelin.
    B) secondary sex characteristics
    C) the pituitary gland.
    D) the self-concept.
    A) myelin.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  196. Like Piaget, Kohlberg emphasized that children's moral judgments build on their
    A) physical development.
    B) social development.
    C) cognitive development.
    D) economic development.
    A) physical development.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  197. A postconventional level of morality is most likely to be found in cultures that value
    A) assimilation.
    B) authoritarian parenting.
    C) individualism.
    D) crystallized intelligence.
    C) individualism.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  198. Today's character education programs teach children to experience
    A) maturation
    B) empathy.
    C) habituation.
    D) object permanence.
    B) empathy.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  199. Fred has no meaningful occupational goals and has switched college majors several times. Erikson would have suggested that Fred lacks
    A) industry.
    B) identity.
    C) initiative.
    D) autonomy.
    B) identity.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  200. Compared with 40 years ago, in the United States today people are likely to
    A) marry for the first time at a later age.
    B) experience their first menstrual period at a later age.
    C) live separately from their parents at an earlier age.
    D) establish their adult careers at an earlier age.
    A) marry for the first time at a later age.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  201. Which of the following is TRUE of adolescence today as compared to a century ago?
    A) Menarche occurs earlier in life, and adult independence occurs later in life.
    B) Menarche occurs later in life, and adult independence occurs later in life.
    C) Menarche occurs later in life, and adult independence occurs earlier in life.
    D) Menarche occurs earlier in life, and adult independence occurs earlier in life.
    A) Menarche occurs earlier in life, and adult independence occurs later in life.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  202. Which of the following describes gender differences in life expectancy?
    A) The number of newborn females is smaller than the number of males, and females have a longer life expectancy than do males.
    B) The number of newborn females is larger than the number of males, and females have a shorter life expectancy than do males.
    C) The number of newborn females is equal to the number of males, and females have a longer life expectancy than do males.
    D) The number of newborn females is equal to the number of males, and females have a shorter life expectancy than do males.
    C) The number of newborn females is equal to the number of males, and females have a longer life expectancy than do males.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  203. The deterioration of memory and thinking caused by ailments such as Alzheimer's disease or a series of small strokes is called
    A) dementia.
    B) crystallized intelligence.
    C) menarche
    D) role confusion.
    A) dementia.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  204. An early sign of Alzheimer's disease would most likely be
    A) an inability to recognize oneself in a mirror. 
    B) the use of profane and abusive language.
    C) an increase in crystallized intelligence.
    D) difficulty in naming familiar objects or people.
    D) difficulty in naming familiar objects or people.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  205. In recall and recognition tests of memory for recently learned material, older adults are more likely than young adults to
    have difficulty
    A) recalling meaningless material.
    B) recalling meaningful material. 
    C) recognizing meaningless material.
    D) recognizing meaningful material.
    A) recalling meaningless material.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  206. In which research method are the same people retested over a period of years?
    A) crosssectional
    B) experimental
    C) longitudinal
    D) chronological
    C) longitudinal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  207. The idea that adult intelligence declines with age has been challenged most effectively by
    A) research on fluid intelligence.
    B) longitudinal research.
    C) tests that assess formal operational thinking.
    D) crosssectional research. 
    B) longitudinal research.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  208. Crystallized intelligence refers most directly to a person's
    A) accumulated knowledge and verbal skills.
    B) ability to reason speedily and abstractly.
    C) ability to assume the perspective of others.
    D) willingness to revise beliefs in light of new information
    A) accumulated knowledge and verbal skills.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  209. Which of the following terms refers to a person's ability to reason speedily and abstractly?
    A) crystallized intelligence 
    B) concrete operational intelligence
    C) fluid intelligence
    D) sensorimotor intelligence
    C) fluid intelligence
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  210. Kathryn and Rafael's third and last child is leaving home for college next year. Their empty nest is likely to be a(n) ________ place.
    A) depressed
    B) anxious
    C) happy
    D) boring
    C) happy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  211. The grief experienced over the death of a loved one is especially severe when death is experienced
    A) as a time that requires sharing honest emotions with others.
    B) as a time for celebrating the life and memory of the deceased person.
    C) as coming before it's expected time on the social clock.
    D) after years of anticipating the death of one's loved one.
    C) as coming before it's expected time on the social clock.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  212. Researchers who emphasize learning and experience tend to view development as
    A) a sequence of stages, while those who emphasize maturation often view development as a continuous process.
    B) a social process, while those who emphasize maturation often view development as a cognitive process.
    C) a continuous process, while those who emphasize maturation often view development as a sequence of stages.
    D) a cognitive process, while those who emphasize maturation often view development as a social process.
    C) a continuous process, while those who emphasize maturation often view development as a sequence of stages.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  213. Questions about the extent to which maladaptive habits learned in childhood can be overcome in adulthood are most
    directly relevant to the issue of
    A) nature or nurture.
    B) continuity or stages.
    C) stability or change.
    D) fluid or crystallized intelligence.
    C) stability or change.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  214. The conflicting results of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of aging and intelligence are of greatest relevance to
    the issue of
    A) concrete or formal operational thought.
    B) continuity or stages. 
    C) stability or change.
    D) assimilation or accommodation.
    A) concrete or formal operational thought.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  215. As boys with explosive tempers grow older, they are especially likely to have difficulty maintaining good jobs and happy marriages. This fact is most relevant to the issue of
    A) stability or change.
    B) fluid or crystallized intelligence.
    C) concrete or formal operations.
    D) conventional or postconventional morality. 
    C) concrete or formal operations.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  216. Human personality shows the greatest stability during
    A) late childhood.
    B) adulthood.
    C) teenage years.
    D) preschool years.
    B) adulthood.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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