Anthro midterm

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Anthro midterm
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2015-10-15 14:16:40
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  1. Folklore (before)
    • Aesthetically marked, socially and affectively intensified cultural forms (verbal, musical, material, bodily) that construct images of the past for use in the present and future, thereby (re)producing and/or resisting social identities and boundaries
    • Text-centered
    • Concerned with words
  2. Folklore (Dundes)
    • Provides a socially sanctioned framework for the expression of critical anxiety-producing problems as well as a cherished artistic vehicle for communicating ethos and worldview
    • Social changes become the subject of folklore, not its demise
    • New communicative technologies increase its transmission, rather than undermine it; not a large assortment of items studied in terms of its content
    • No text-centered orientation of the past
    • Precise, not fuzzy
  3. Folklore (Bauman/Texas)
    • basis for creating and challenging power differentials and for exclustion, even within the smallest of folk groups
    • Emphasizes diversity, heterogeneity and variation within folk groups
  4. Folkloristics
    Scholarly study of folklore
  5. John Aubrey
    • Generally started folklore in the late 17th century
    • Called it antiquarianism
  6. John Thoms
    Coined “folklore” in an article in 1846
  7. Romantic Nationalism
    According to Dundes – shared culture
  8. Etic perspective
    • An analytic perspective that focuses on comparison
    • Relies on universalistic, general frameworks
    • Only has to do w/ scholars comparing; diff and similarities
  9. Emic perspective
    • The definition and interpretation of cultural forms through terms of demonstrable relevance to the people who perform them, using their terms and their assessments of competence and performance
    • Vernacular theorizing
    • People (of a specific community/group) classifying their own folklore
  10. Sir James Frazer
    • 1843-1937
    • “Armchair” research- comparison at a distance
  11. Texture
    • The “feel” of folklore
    • Poetics (rhyme)
    • Techniques of verisimilitude (making it look and sound real)
    • Gesture, face, body
    • Features of delivery (pacing of joke, setup and punchline, etc.)
    • Competence- crucial.. “some people just can’t tell a joke”
  12. Aesthetic marking/heightening
    • Activities that are marked as special
    • Affect intensity
    • Aesthetic elaboration (Dundes’ texture)
  13. Text
    • The words and their semantic (dictionary definition) meanings
    • Characters
    • Plot
    • “Ethos and worldview”
    • Variable importance btwn fixed phrase and free phrase forms of folklore
  14. True riddle
    • A “what” type of question
    • Has an answer
    • Everything needed to answer is in the question, no tricks
    • Tests competence of respondent
  15. Joking riddle
    • A “why” type of question
    • No clues in question
    • Normally narratives performed by one person, no audience needed
    • Tests competence of performer
  16. Context
    • Social situation in which folklore is performed (who, what, when, where)
    • Fit between the item performed and that situation
  17. Mixed genres
    • Riddle-tale
    • Doubling of texts
    • Doubling of textures
    • Doubling of contexts- interaction within interaction heightens attention to power in interactional settings
    • Blending of all three into mixed genre
  18. Performance
    • Emphasized by Bauman
    • Suggests an aesthetically marked and heightened mode of communication, framed in a special way and put on display for an audience
  19. Blason populaire
    • Folk heraldry (vain display of importance?) or folk sign
    • Not necessarily a genre b/c includes all types of folklore
    • Closely related to the formation of negative stereotypes
  20. Competence
    • Crucial to texture when performing
    • “Some people just can’t tell a joke”
  21. Sub-types of riddles
    • True riddle: A “what” type of question; has an answer; everything needed to answer is in the question; no tricks
    • Reverse/joking question: A “why” type of question; no clues in question; normally narratives performed by one person, no audience needed
    • Special knowledge riddle: might not have all the info to know answer
    • Catch riddles: just make jokes out of riddle (elephant jokes?)
    • Paradoxes: .
    • Riddle tales/neck riddles: about someone in power struggle, gonna get killed unless they can answer the riddle
  22. Multi-sited ethnography
    • Start with a problem, not a place
    • Find all sites where folklore about it exists and document
    • Trace how forms of folklore and commentary about them travel btwn sites
    • Compare the similarities and diffs in how the forms are performed and interpreted and their impact in each
  23. The folk
    • People who perform folklore
    • Either creates folklore, or is created through performances of folklore
    • Either emphasizes shared culture or constructing of social differences
  24. Proverb
    • Short and witty traditional fixed-phrase expressions that arise as part of everyday discourse, as well as in literature, education, judicial settings, etc.
    • States an approach to a recurrent problem; present a point of view and strategy that’s self-sufficient, needing nothing more than an event of communication to bring it into play
    • Take personal and interpersonal situations and depersonalize them
    • Powerful, strategic interactional devices
    • Tools for projecting social identities (wisdom, moral values, challenge to authority)
    • Call attention to themselves as artistic devices
  25. Semantic relationships for proverbs
    • Equational (or positive equivalence): Identity (enough is enough; boys will be boys); Equation of distinct elements (time is money)
    • Oppositional (or negative equivalence): See the difference
    • Causational (or sequential), positive: .
    • Causational (or sequential), negative : .
  26. 4 contexts in proverb performances
    • Proverb situation: the imaginary context that is actually created by text
    • Context situation: the social situation that is the target of the performance (may not be evident at the time of performance)
    • Interaction situation: evident at time of utterance
    • Projected future context: if you heed the proverb, X will happen; if not, Y might.
  27. Sub-types of proverbs
    • Wellerisms: “_____,” said the _____ as he (conditional).
    • Tom Swiftys
    • Anti-Proverbs
    • Proverb Citations in proverbial form: “make love, not more”
    • Shaggy Dog Stories: containing perverted proverbs
  28. Techniques of verisimilitude
    Use of body, facial expression, gesture, sound
  29. Fixed-phrase
    • No changes in wording - that would change the meaning
    • Ex. Riddles and punchlines
  30. Free-phrase
    • Could be told however
    • Ex. Tall tales and joke set-ups
  31. Social identities & boundaries
    • Identities aren’t stable and bounded
    • Revolve around contradictions
    • License associated with performance enables people to represent social phenomena that are ordinarily taboo to discuss overtly (at least in some contexts)
  32. "Keys” in performance
    • Contain instructions on how to interpret what’s being said
    • Signals beginning and end of performances
    • Ex. “Did you hear the one about…” to the punchline
    • Provide a map of the structure of the performance and how audience members are supposed to participate
    • Specific to communities and genres
  33. Folk speech/speech play
    • Consists of linguistic forms that are recognized by members of a social community as signaling the inclusion or exclusion of the person who utters them and often her/his interlocutors
    • Every time we speak, we place ourselves and the people around us in terms of social communities
  34. Psychoanalytic
    • Jokes as reflections of unconscious
    • Seemingly accidental details are psychologically organized
    • Centers on major sites of anxiety, taboo, stress, etc.
  35. Tourist borderzone
    • Like an empty stage waiting for performance time; for both audience of tourists and for the native performers. Natives move in and out of borderzone too.
    • Perceptions of the two groups are different: tourists see it as zone of leisure and exoticzation; natives see it as a site of work and cash income.
  36. Linguistic (semantic)
    • Humor emerges from linguistic structure
    • Jokes create semantic ambiguities
    • Incongruity theory suggests that jokes create appropriate incongruities, then resolve them
    • Process require cognitive participation of audience
  37. Henry Glassie
    Ethnography of speaking folklore
  38. Heritage
    • Old view: What is inherited from past generations by particular populations; Subject to forgetting, opposite of modernity
    • Contemporary: Pasts that are produced in the present; often created by elites, outsiders; commodified, performed, consumed
  39. Ethnography of speaking folklore
    • Mutual interaction btwn folkloristics, linguistics, and anthropology
    • Study of the social construction of ethnic/racial identities, of self and other in performance
    • Scholars staying in places inhabited by performers for extended periods of time
    • Now more urban and modern sites
    • Analysis centered on competence and performance, and on the social significance of the folklore in people’s everyday lives
    • Importance of emic perspectives
  40. Performance
    • Creates relationship between people
    • Makes folklore and folk groups/communities
    • Suggests an aesthetically marked and heightened mode of communication, framed in a special way and put on display for an audience
  41. Traditional aesthetic philosophy
    • Glassie
    • Weds individual desire for technical mastery and personal vision to a concern w/ collective values, struggles, and aesthetic patterns
    • Problematic w/ structuring folk art b/c folk art can produce notions of difference
  42. Metacommunication
    • How to distinguish between different orders of messages
    • Keys, frames, markers, etc.

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