Lab Practical 2

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Author:
lonelygirl
ID:
309660
Filename:
Lab Practical 2
Updated:
2015-10-15 14:46:35
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Biology Anatomy philosophy
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Description:
Biology 103B
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  1. neutrophil
    phagocytize bacteria, 50-70%
  2. eosinophil
    kill parasitic worms; complex role in allergy and asthma, 2-4%
  3. basophil
    release histamine and other mediators of inflammation; contain heparin, an anticoagulant, less than 1%
  4. lymphocyte
    mount immune response by direct cell attack or via antibodies, 25% or more
  5. monocyte
    phagocytosis; develop into marcophages in tissues, 3-8%
  6. differential WBC counts
    100 WBCs are counted and classified according to type, and any abnormality of significant elevation in percentages of WBC types may indicate a problem or the source of pathology.
  7. cause of high neutrophil count
    • an acute infection (especially bacterial)
    • acute stresseclampsia (complication of pregnancy)
    • inflammation (e.g. inflammatory bowel disease or rheumatoid arthritis)
    • tissue injury due to traumachronic leukemia
  8. cause of low neutrophil count
    • aplastic anemia (a decrease in the number of blood cells produced by your bone marrow)
    • been undergoing chemotherapy treatments
    • a severe or widespread bacterial or viral infection
  9. cause of high lymphocyte count
    • a chronic bacterial infection
    • hepatitis
    • multiple myeloma (cancer of the cells in your bone marrow)
    • a viral infection (e.g. mononucleosis, mumps, or measles)
    • lymphocytic leukemia
    • lymphoma (a white blood cell cancer that originates in your lymph nodes)
  10. cause of low lymphocyte count
    • bone marrow damage due to chemotherapy or radiation treatments
    • HIV, tuberculosis, or hepatitis infection
    • leukemia
    • a severe infection (e.g. sepsis)
    • an autoimmune disorder (e.g. lupus or rheumatoid arthritis)
  11. cause of high monocyte count
    • a chronic inflammatory disease (e.g. inflammatory bowel disease)
    • a parasitic or viral infection
    • a bacterial infection in your heart
    • a collagen vascular disease (e.g. lupus, vasculitis, or rheumatoid arthritis)
    • certain types of leukemia
  12. cause of high eosoniphils count
    • an allergic reaction
    • a skin inflammation (e.g. eczema or dermatitis)
    • a parasitic infection
    • an inflammatory disorder (e.g. inflammatory bowel disease or celiac disease)
    • certain cancers
  13. cause of low eosoniphils count
    intoxication from alcohol or excessive production of cortisol (a steroid produced naturally in the body)
  14. cause of high basophils count
    • a serious food allergy
    • inflammation
    • leukemia
  15. cause of low basophils count
    • a severe allergy
    • Hyperthyroidism (a condition in which the thyroid gland is overactive)
  16. total WBC count and total RBC count
    determines the total number of that cell type per unit volume of blood
  17. leukocytosis
    an abnormally high WBC count, may indicate bacterial or viral infection, metabolic disease, hemorrhage, or poisoning by drugs or chemicals
  18. leukopenia
    a disease in the white cell number beloow 4000/mm3, may indicate typhoid fever, measles, infectious hepatitis or cirrhois, tuberculosis, or excessive antibiotic or X-ray therapy
  19. leukemia
    a malignant disorder of the lymphoid tissues characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal WBCs accompanied by a reduction in the number of RBCs and platelets, is detectable not only by a total WBC count but also by a differential WBC count
  20. Polycythemia
    an increase in the number of RBCs, may result from bone marrow cancer or from living at high altitudes where less oxygen is available.
  21. anemia
    a decrease in the number of RBCs, may result from a decrease in RBC number or size or a decreased hemoglobin content of the RBCs
  22. general locations of clusters of lymph nodes and lymphatic organs and MALT
    • 1) the cervical region
    • 2) The axillary region
    • 3) The inguinal region
    • 4) The pelvic cavity
    • 5) The abdominal cavity
    • 6) the thoracic cavity

    • tonsils (in pharyngeal region)
    • thymus (in thorax; most active during youth)
    • spleen (curves around left side of stomach)
    • peyer's patches (in intestine)
    • appendix

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