music afica

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  1. Generally, African societies do not use music notation.
    Transmitted orally.
  2. Often associated with
  3. there is a directrelationship between
    music and dance
  4. is an important (sometimes the most important, or most central) activityin African cultures
  5. are numerous and diverse in Africa, but not distributed evenly across all cultures.
  6. Africans in a community use __________  in their lives as an opportunity to share in music-making, making it a social event.
  7. In what ways do the settings of performances in Africa differ from those of performances here? In what ways are they similar?
    • • First, music most often takes place outdoors, in the open air. There may be certain places in a village or town set aside for performance, but performance can also simply take place anywhere. 
    • • Performances are often informal. (see Music in Community Life, p. 34: “the atmosphere…is usually informal, and spectators are free to move about or leave any time they wish.”)
    • • MOST IMPORTANTLY: Audience members are attracted to the performance for different reasons, and also: the “rules” of observation are much looser than those of a typical performance in the West. The line between performers and spectatorsis blurred, first of all. The spectators of a musical performance in Africa may often become participants in some way. 
    • • Is the performance always “for” the audience? Not necessarily. The spectatorsmay just be there, but not the focus of the performance (i.e., if the music is for areligious purpose; for contacting ancestral sprits, etc.)
  8. is a tuned idiophone.
  9. There are many types of xylophones, and difference can occur in many areas:
    • • no. of keys/size of the instrument
    • • size of the actual keys
    • • “loose-key” vs. “fixed-key” design
    • • scales/tuning
    • • beaters
    • • playing style
  10. In general, xylophones found in West Africa tend to be _______ instruments,whereas in East Africa _______ instruments predominate.
    • fixed-key
    • loose-key
  11. 1. range = almost three octaves; # of keys = 14. Pentatonic (5-tone) scale.
    2. design
       a. keys: wood
       b. resonators = gourds. Buzzing timbre is           created by cutting holes in gourds and         placing thin tissue paper over the                 holes.
       c. fixed-key design: frame to hold                   keys/resonators
    3. performance
    • played by one player, seated, usually with two beaters, ‘soft’ ends. Some use of multiple beaters in one hand has been documented.
    • bars struck in center
  12. amadinda
    east africa
  13. gyil
  14. amaninda instrumnet
    • 1. range = 2 octaves + 2 keys; no. of keys = 12. Pentatonic (5-tone) scale
    • 2. design
    • a. keys: wood
    • b. no resonators!
    • c. loose-key design: bars are not permanently affixed to a frame. Rather,when played, a frame is constructed ad hoc.
    • 3. performance
    • • played by three people with hard sticks. Interlocking technique employed.
    • • bars struck on edges
  15. cultures are located in the forest regions of equatorial Africa. They are primarily organized as hunter-gatherer societies, and as such are nomadic. this group groups do, however, visit and stay in villages (permanent settlements) occasionally. these groups are highly cooperative, and have egalitarian social structures.
  16. Pygmy music
    • Vocal music is the core of Pygmy musical culture:
    • • Instruments are few and simple
    • • This is due to the environment, and to the nomadic lifestyle; instruments are made of simple materials that occur in the forest, and sometimes can even be discarded after use.
  17. Features of Pygmy vocal music
    • • Ostinato and hocket technique
    • • Call & response
    • • Yodeling
    • • Dense, layered sound of many people/musical lines at once; “leadership”constantly shifting
  18. In Pygmy cultures, music is an ______. Music-making generally is notrestricted; in other words, any member of society is welcome to participate.
    unspecialized activity
  19. There are cases in which restrictions or limitations exist in terms of music-making. The reading mentions for example the ______, used to“wake up the forest.” Here the primary singers are men.
    molimo ceremony
  20. is an artisan; specifically, a “shaper of sound (words and music).”
  21. The jeli, jobs
    as a musician, public speaker,oral historian, praiser, advisor, chronicler of events, is an important figure inMande culture
  22. jeli can be either
    male or female
  23. The Mande broadly recognize two social classes:
    • sula
    • nymalo:
  24. specialized skill workers (craftspeople)
  25. “ordinary” people – formers, merchants, those who work in cities, and alsothe aristocracy in past eras
  26. designates those who rely on a specialized craft as a profession. In Mande culture this means metal smiths, wood and leather workers, andmusicians, known by the term jeli. The ‘material’ that the musician works with is not the musical instrument, but the word, whether spoken or sung.”
  27. including the jeli, are low in the social hierarchy, but atthe same time regarded with awe and respect due to the power of their specializedknowledge
  28. There are three areas of specialization for jeli
    • speech, song, and instrumental playing.
    • typical a jeli picks one
    • All aspiring jelis learn the three areas at first, but as they mature they select their area of specialization
  29. A jeli receives training from the
    the parent first, but then is also expected to study with other masters.
  30. certain musical instruments are reserved for the jeli. Only a jeli is permitted toplay the
    balafon (xylophone), the kora (21-stringed harp-lute), and the koni (small chordophone, similar to a banjo)
  31. s regarded as an authoritative source of knowledge for the culture.
    a jeli who specializes in speech (kuma)
  32. Who may become a jeli?
    one must be born into a jeli family.
  33. Jeli families control entrance intothe profession by strict rules of intermarriage (a practice known as
  34. The vocalist in Ala L’a Ke alternates between two styles of vocal delivery:
    • donkilo
    • sataro
  35. melody. This style sounds like melodic singing
  36. “declamatory style”. Sataro sounds more like regular speech. Pitches maystill be sung, but the delivery is more rapid and less lyrical.
  37. The kora player keeps a groove – an ostinato pattern – under the singing most of the time.This is called
  38. But during breaks in the singing, the kora player may perform.
    These often sound like rapid, cascading flurries of notes.
    birimintingo – breaks
  39. are located in West Africa, primarily in the coastal regions of Ghana and Togo.
  40. is an important musical activity among the Ewe, and indeed throughout the West African region.
  41. can be understood simply as dance or movement that is accompanied by percussion music.
  42. Often, there is a __________ between the drumming rhythms and the dance movements for Dance-drumming; that is, the dancers and musicians may influence each other, or may need to react to one another, during the performance.
    close relationship
  43. Among the Ewe, dance-drumming repertoire is preserved and perpetuated by:
    • • clubs
    • • mutual aid societies
    • • school groups
    • • professional, state-sponsored troupes
  44. Most music and dance is learned through the process of ________, as opposed toformal lessons
  45. is learning through slow absorption without formal teaching.
  46. The name Agbekor translates to
    “clear life.”
  47. Agbekor is called
  48. The prefix “atsia” means
  49. War was the original impetus for Agbekor performances. It had two functions in thiscapacity:
    • 1. If performed prior to war, it would fill the hearts of warriors with bravery
    • 2. If performed after battles, it served as a means of communication. Warriors coulddescribe through the music great deeds, or perhaps the details of the death of aleader or chief.
  50. A performance of agbekor typically involves many elements:
    • • the drumming
    • • costumes
    • • choreography. Agbekor is a strict dance that is rehearsed meticulously untilperfected. Dance movements are reminiscent of war activities.
    • • singing. Numerous, different songs may be sung during a performance, whichmay last two to three hours.
  51. It is very common for instruments in an Ewe percussion ensemble to correspond to one off our functions. The four functions are:
    • A. timekeeper
    • B. emphasis of the timekeeper
    • C. supporting drums
    • D. lead drum
  52. provides the timeline structure for agbekor. The rhythmic patternprovides the unifying structure for all elements of the performance—music, singingand dance. The pattern will cycle continuously, never changing. It cannot change,because it provides the fundamental structure of the music.
  53. Other instruments in the ensemble will sometimes directly emphasize the bell rhythm;also sometimes these instruments will merely assist in the creation of the music-temporal experience (what we might call the ‘groove’).
    Emphasis of the timekeeper
  54. typically play an ostinato pattern, but they may have specificvariations that are possible
    Supporting drums
  55. supporting drums Some comments on these variations:
    • 1) variations are learned or known in advance by the performers
    • 2) they may be used spontaneously, or in response to cues from the lead drum
    • 3) they typically retain the character of the original rhythmic pattern
  56. is the most important drum in the ensemble. Its function is to provideaural cues/signals to the musicians/dancers, leading the performance. In essence, the lead drummer is the leader of the ensemble. Any improvisation in the drummingmusic that occurs is the purview
    Lead drum
  57. is evident in Agbekor
  58. occurs when listeners can perceive two,unrelated metric structures in a single piece of music.
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music afica
2015-10-20 23:43:35
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