Dr. Brown Ch 8 Nervous System Analgesia and Anesthetics

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Dr. Brown Ch 8 Nervous System Analgesia and Anesthetics
2016-10-23 17:50:17
nervous system

Dr. Brown Ch 8 nervous system
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  1. Type of drug that directly relieves the perception of pain without loss of other sensations
  2. Type of drug that causes relaxation in the animal without loss of consciousness
  3. Type of drug that relieves anxiety but produces no real analgesia
  4. Without sensation
  5. Loss of sensation in a regional area of the body without loss of consciousness
    Local anesthesia
  6. Heightened emotional response
  7. Concentration that must be achieved in the alveoli to produce safe levels of anesthesia
    Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC)
  8. Slow breathing rate
  9. Increased rate of breathing
  10. Type of drug that removes perception of touch, pain, temperature and pressure
  11. 4 steps in pain pathway
    • Transduction
    • Transmission
    • Modulation
    • Perception
  12. Pain associated with or originating from the organs or tissues inside the body
    Visceral pain
  13. Pain associated with a specific location on the surface of the body
    Somatic pain
  14. Translation of physical stimulus into depolarization of a receptor
  15. Depolarization from the receptor to a sensory nerve and along the nerve toward the spinal cord to the brain
  16. Perception of pain at the brain level can be decreased even though the pain receptor continues to initiate the pain signal
  17. Pain impulse at the conscious level, being aware of the pain
  18. Produced unconsciousness and prevents conscious perception of pain
    General anesthesia
  19. Means increased sensitivity to pain
  20. Refers to increased sensitivity the spinal cord acquires to pain as the result of pain signals being transmitted up the spinal cord
    Wind up
  21. Group of chemically synthesized opiatelike drugs that bind to opioid receptors
  22. Derived as extracts from poppy seeds
  23. Stuporous state of disorientation
  24. Pleasant hallucinogenic effects
  25. Unpleasant hallucinogenic effects
  26. Receptor found on nerves associated with the pain pathway in the brain and spinal cord, provide strong analgesia and sedation with narcosis, cause respiratory depression
    Mu receptors
  27. Receptor that provides mild analgesia and sedation without respiratory depression and causes dysphoria
    Kappa receptors
  28. Receptors that provide some spinal cord analgesia and some motor stimulation, cardiac stimulation and dysphoria
    Delta receptors
  29. Type of drug that produces some analgesic effect when combined with an opioid receptor
    Partial agonist/ partial antagonist
  30. Type of opioid that has activity at one type of opioid receptor and a blocking effect on another type of  opioid receptor
    Mixed agonist/ antagonist
  31. Opioid drugs combined with tranquilizer or sedative drugs
  32. Inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS
  33. Inhibition of inhibitory neurons
  34. Stimulation of this catecholamine-type receptor causes decreased release of norepinephrine from the neuron
  35. Cessation of breathing
  36. Low plasma protein levels
  37. Nephrotoxic chemical produced by the reaction of sevoflurane and carbon dioxide scavenger compounds used in anesthetic machines
    Compound A
  38. Injectable anesthetic agent, ultrashort acting, initial recovery is from redistribution of the drug to less-perfused tissues
  39. Drug that produces sedation by decreasing the release of norepinephrine
    Xylazine, detomidine, medetomidine
  40. One of the drugs that can reverse xylazine overdose in a cow
    Yohimbine, tolazoline, atipamezole
  41. Barbiturate used in greyhounds because its rapid metabolism
  42. Fastest gas anesthetic for induction and recovery
  43. Tranquilizer with antiemetic properties, third eyelid comes up with this drug
  44. Anesthetic gas usually used as an additional agent, not used in pneumothorax or bloated patients
    Nitrous oxide
  45. Tranquilizer that has no inherent antiemetic properties
    Diazepam or other benzodiazepine tranquilizer
  46. Classified as a short-acting barbiturate not as long in duration as phenobarbital injectable
  47. Agent associated with malignant hyperthermia
  48. Dissociative anesthetic, visceral analgesia not as good as somatic analgesia, poor muscle relaxation
    Ketamine, tiletamine
  49. Nonbarbiturate injectable drug used for intubation, single dose ampule or vial
  50. Drugs that make animals hypersensitive to sound
  51. Injectable anesthetic agent that produces a cataleptic state in cats
    Ketamine, tiletamine
  52. Tranquilizer that can produce penile prolapse and should not be used in hypotensive animals
  53. Partial agonist/partial antagonist opioid narcotic, also ingredient in cough med for dogs
  54. Strong opioid narcotic analgesia administered as a patch
  55. CNS stimulant found in chocolate
  56. CNS stimulant used to reverse general respiratory depression such as might occur with inhalant anesthesia in puppies delivered by c-section
  57. Strong opioid agonists
    • Morphine (mu and kappa)
    • Fentanyl (mu)
    • Hydromorphone (mu and kappa)
    • Meperidine (mu)
  58. Partial opioid agonists
    • Butorphanol (mu partial, kappa agonist)
    • Buprenorphrine (mu partial, kappa antagonist)
  59. Strong opioid antagonist
    Naloxone (mu and kappa)
  60. Partial opioid antagonist
    Nalorphine (mu partial, kappa agonist)
  61. TRUE OR FALSE. Normal dose of barbiturates should be decreased in a dog with low plasma protein levels
  62. TRUE OR FALSE. Ketamine can result in dried corneas if the eyes are not medicated
  63. TRUE OR FALSE. Two rugs in Telazol are toletamine and zolazepam.
  64. TRUE OR FALSE. Typically respiratory rate increases with opioid analgesic drugs.
  65. What species is highly sensitive to the effects of xylazine?
    Cattle, 10X more sensitive than horses
  66. Morphine
    Use, how it works, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: Analgesic 
    • How it works: Acts on mu and kappa receptors 
    • Cons: Cats, allergic, liver/kidney disease
    • Side effects: Dyspnea, sedation
  67. Hydromorphone
    Use, how it works, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: Analgesic
    • How it works: Acts on mu and kappa receptors 
    • Cons: Hypothyroidism, Addisons disease 
    • Side effects: Sedation, vomiting, dyspnea
  68. Fentanyl
    Use, how it works, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: Analgesic
    • How it works: Acts on mu receptors 
    • Cons: Other sedatives, allergic
    • Side effects: Dyspnea, rash at patch site
  69. Buprenorphine
    Use, how it works, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: Analgesic
    • How it works: Mu partial agonist, kappa antagonist 
    • Cons: Addisons and kidney/liver disease 
    • Side effects: Sedation
  70. Naloxone
    Use, how it works, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: Opioid antagonist 
    • How it works: Mu and kappa antagonist, reversal agent for opioids 
    • Cons: Heart abnormalities 
    • Side effects: Hypertension, diarrhea, fever
  71. Zolazepam/ Tiletamine 
    Use, how it works, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: Tranquilizer 
    • How it works: Interrupts pathways to the brain 
    • Cons: Pancreatic disease, kidney/cardiac disease
    • Side effects: Dyspnea, excessive salivation
  72. Midazolam 
    Use, how it works, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: Tranquilizer
    • How it works: Reduce serotonin levels and reduce acetylcholine levels
    • Cons: Kidney/liver disease, glaucoma 
    • Side effects: Sedation, disorientation
  73. Flumazenil 
    Use, how it works, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: Benzodiazepine antagonist 
    • How it works: Inhibits GABA receptors 
    • Cons: Kidney/liver disease 
    • Side effects: Hypoventilation, seizures
  74. Xylazine
    Use, how it works, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: a2 agonist, sedative, anesthetic 
    • How it works: Cause CNS depression
    • Cons: Liver/kidney/heart disease 
    • Side effects: Bradycardia, sweating, salivation
  75. Detomidine
    Use, how it works, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: a2 agonist, sedative 
    • How it works: Activates catecholamine receptors causing a negative feedback effect
    • Cons: AV or SA block, kidney failure 
    • Side effects: Dyspnea, tremors, death
  76. Medetomidine
    Use, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: a2 agonist, sedative 
    • Cons: Under 12 weeks old, low BP, shock 
    • Side effects: Bradycardia, dyspnea, low temperature
  77. Yohimbine
    Use, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: a2 antagonist, reversal agent for xylazine
    • Cons: Kidney disease, seizures 
    • Side effects: Nausea, diarrhea
  78. Atipamezole
    Use, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: a2 antagonists, reversal agent for dexmedetomidine 
    • Cons: Cardiac/liver/kidney disease
    • Side effects: Aggression, vomiting
  79. Tolazoline
    Use, how it works, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: a2 antagonist, reversal agent for xylazine 
    • How it works: Blocks CNS depression 
    • Cons: Cardiac disease 
    • Side effects: Tachycardia
  80. Pentobarbital 
    Use, how it works, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: Anesthetic, euthanasia 
    • How it works: Slows brain activity 
    • Cons: Porphyria, liver disease 
    • Side effects: Excitement, slowed breathing
  81. Propofol
    Use, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: Anesthetic
    • Cons: Allergies to eggs and soy 
    • Side effects: Apnea
  82. Ketamine
    Use, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: Dissociative anesthetic 
    • Cons: Liver/kidney disease 
    • Side effects: Apnea, salivation
  83. Isoflurae and sevoflurane
    Use, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: Inhalant anesthetic
    • Cons: Sensitivity to halogens 
    • Side effects: Hypotension, respiratory depression
  84. Doxapram 
    Use, how it works, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: CNS stimulant
    • How it works: Stimulates breathing 
    • Cons: Seizures, heart disease, high BP
    • Side effects: Hypertension, hyperventilation