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what do all insects have?
- 6 legs
- two pairs of wings (if they do)
- plastic mouthpiece
what were the unmoving wings for?
first insects to fold wing back
grasshopers, stinkbugs, cicadas
hatch from egg just like adult, don't have wings or reproductive organs
stag beetle is an example of
- indirect development
- larva and adult don't compete for same food
- larva eats more
- with red fangs
larva is so different from adult
what kind of insect has a mandible mouth? good at crushing things?
what kind of insect munches/kisses food?
what kind of animal with long mouthpiece?
which insect eats parts of animal, has long thing to stab you
chalky substance on scales, neutralize silk of spider and echo of bats so they can't be caught
what is an adaptation of the moth
gets food from plant in exchange for spreading pollen
what % similarity does sister workers share? how?
75%, 50% identical from dad, and 25% identical from mom.
- relatedness and benefit to recipient (queen bee) greater than cost
- queen bee will make more
why are insects small?
body breathing tubes made out of chitin, can't be stretched, need oxygen
why did insects get so big in Carboniferous era?
increase in oxygen
E.O. Wilson and insects
environment would collapse into chaos without insects
oldest myriapod fossil
millipede from late Silurian (428 million year ago)
tongue eating parasite
- body into segments
- each segment has a pair of jointed appendages
- exoskeleton by cuticle
tagma vs. tagmosis
- specialized grouping of multiple segments into a coherently functional unit
- evolutionary process that creates tagmata by fusing and modifying segments
open circulatory system
- pump blood into hemocoel with blood diffusing back to the circulatory system between cells.
- fluid in cavity called hemocoel bathes the organs directly with oxygen and nutrients and no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid
hemocoel in arthropods
- body cavity that contains blood or hemolymph
- goes along with open circulatory system
ecdysis in arthopods
- hormone induced molting
- no cilia on larvae or adults
what happens to coelom in arthropods
- reduced to region around gonads
- coelom (body cavity)
arthropod 5 phyla
success of arthropod is attributed to?
- exoskeleton (osmosis so transition to land, predator)
- joint appendages
two parts of cuticle
- epicuticle (external part) to retain water, made of wax and protein
- protocuticle made of chitin (Sclerotization and then mineralization)
three parts divided by tagmosis?
- head, thorax, abdomen (tagmata)
- hox genes determine spatial orientation
layers of epicuticle
- outer: lipoproteins
- middle: waxy layer of fats, wax esters
- inner: protein
procuticle (chitin and protein) is hardened by?
- sclerotization (cross linking of protein into 3D)
- mineralization (deposition of calcium carbonate in pro cuticle of crustaceans
- stages between molts
- when actual tissue growth occurs, but no size increase until after the molt
- cuticle is weakened enzymatically then animal comes out
- after molting, animal sucks in water/air to inflate new cuticle (hardens)
where do muscles anchor on arthropods?
inside of cuticle, connect into the jointed appendages on each segment
how does the diversity of body form evolve?
- specialization of segments, regions and appendages
- tagmosis, segments are specialized for diff functions, create greater efficiency
which phyla has uniramous and biramous?
- crustaceans are biramous
- uniramous are insects.
- specialized muscles to move limb pieces
- extrinsic muscles connect to body wall
- intrinsic muscles are contained entirely inside the limb
- each limb has 2 branches
- found in marine arthropods (crustaceans) they need this to help swim in water
- most common group of fossil arthropods
- once abundant in oceans
parts of trilobitomorpha
cephalon (head), thorax, pygidium
spiders, scorpions and horseshoe crabs
- 65,000 spieces
- body of 2 magmata (cephalothorax and abdomen)
- no antennae
- gas exchange by book gills, book lungs or tracheae
- separate sexes
first pair of appendages in cheliceriformes (looks like fangs)
- sea spiders
- sucking proboscis (nose to feed)
- males brood eggs on ovigers (leg appendages)
- females (hollow legs filled with eggs)
- horseshoe crabs (order xiphosura)
- 5 living species (all other extinct)
- small chelicerae
- telson or tail spine to flip itself back
what was the first walking leg used for in horseshoe crab?
segments of horseshoe crab are called
- prosoma (head and thorax)
- opisthosoma (abs)
- opisthosomal appendages absent or modified as spinnerets (for spinning silk proteins-one of the strongest)
- gas exchange by tracheae or book lungs
- 3 tagmata (5 segmented head, thorax, abdomen)
- carapace (hard upper shield)
- mandibles, modified limbs act as jaws
- biramous limbs
- gills are actually legs modified for gas exchange
- nauplius larva
- 2 pairs of antennae
nephridia in crustacea
glands near antenna where excretion happens
- if first thoracic segment fuses with head, its appendages grow as maxillipeds
- called antennules
- in crustacean
what are parts of a crustacean limb?
- protopod, branches join at the base
- inner branch (endopod)
- outer branch (exopod)
- extensions on outer side (function as gills, gill cleaners, flattened)
- extensions toward the body often form a spiny grinding surface
crabs, shrimps, lobsters
- body of 19 segments
- head (5)
- thorax (8)
- abdomen (6+telson)
- pereopods (walkings legs)
- pleopods (swimming legs)
hoplocarida (super order of class Malacostraca)
stomatopods (manis shrimp)
eucarida, superorder of malacostraca
krill, crabs, shrimps, lobsters
superorder of Malacostraca, peracarida
isopods, amphipods, mysids
lots of eyes, colors, vicious predators snagging prey with raptorial limbs.
form feeding swarms, especially at the poles, primary food source for many whales
5th walking leg modified for swimming
appendage in crustaceans modified for feeding
- true crabs
- 1st antenna outside the eye, 2nd between the eyes
- hermit and king crabs
- 3 to 4 pairs of walking legs, 5th reduced to gill cleaner
- first and second antennae are between the eyes
- having an unsegmented body and a single eye
- in decapods (crabs) the stage occurs in side the egg
developmental stages of crabs
- zoea (larval form)
- megalops (transparent juvenile)