Eco and Evo
Card Set Information
Eco and Evo
what do all insects have?
two pairs of wings (if they do)
what were the unmoving wings for?
first insects to fold wing back
grasshopers, stinkbugs, cicadas
hatch from egg just like adult, don't have wings or reproductive organs
stag beetle is an example of
larva and adult don't compete for same food
larva eats more
with red fangs
larva is so different from adult
what kind of insect has a mandible mouth? good at crushing things?
what kind of insect munches/kisses food?
what kind of animal with long mouthpiece?
which insect eats parts of animal, has long thing to stab you
chalky substance on scales, neutralize silk of spider and echo of bats so they can't be caught
what is an adaptation of the moth
gets food from plant in exchange for spreading pollen
what % similarity does sister workers share? how?
75%, 50% identical from dad, and 25% identical from mom.
relatedness and benefit to recipient (queen bee) greater than cost
queen bee will make more
why are insects small?
body breathing tubes made out of chitin, can't be stretched, need oxygen
why did insects get so big in Carboniferous era?
increase in oxygen
E.O. Wilson and insects
environment would collapse into chaos without insects
oldest myriapod fossil
millipede from late Silurian (428 million year ago)
tongue eating parasite
body into segments
each segment has a pair of jointed appendages
exoskeleton by cuticle
tagma vs. tagmosis
specialized grouping of multiple segments into a coherently functional unit
evolutionary process that creates tagmata by fusing and modifying segments
open circulatory system
pump blood into hemocoel with blood diffusing back to the circulatory system between cells.
fluid in cavity called hemocoel bathes the organs directly with oxygen and nutrients and no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid
hemocoel in arthropods
body cavity that contains blood or hemolymph
goes along with open circulatory system
ecdysis in arthopods
hormone induced molting
no cilia on larvae or adults
what happens to coelom in arthropods
reduced to region around gonads
coelom (body cavity)
arthropod 5 phyla
success of arthropod is attributed to?
exoskeleton (osmosis so transition to land, predator)
two parts of cuticle
epicuticle (external part) to retain water, made of wax and protein
protocuticle made of chitin (Sclerotization and then mineralization)
three parts divided by tagmosis?
head, thorax, abdomen (tagmata)
hox genes determine spatial orientation
layers of epicuticle
: waxy layer of fats, wax esters
procuticle (chitin and protein) is hardened by?
sclerotization (cross linking of protein into 3D)
mineralization (deposition of calcium carbonate in pro cuticle of crustaceans
stages between molts
when actual tissue growth occurs, but no size increase until after the molt
cuticle is weakened enzymatically then animal comes out
after molting, animal sucks in water/air to inflate new cuticle (hardens)
where do muscles anchor on arthropods?
inside of cuticle, connect into the jointed appendages on each segment
how does the diversity of body form evolve?
specialization of segments, regions and appendages
tagmosis, segments are specialized for diff functions, create greater efficiency
which phyla has uniramous and biramous?
crustaceans are biramous
uniramous are insects.
specialized muscles to move limb pieces
extrinsic muscles connect to body wall
intrinsic muscles are contained entirely inside the limb
each limb has 2 branches
found in marine arthropods (crustaceans) they need this to help swim in water
most common group of fossil arthropods
once abundant in oceans
parts of trilobitomorpha
cephalon (head), thorax, pygidium
spiders, scorpions and horseshoe crabs
body of 2 magmata (cephalothorax and abdomen)
gas exchange by book gills, book lungs or tracheae
first pair of appendages in cheliceriformes (looks like fangs)
sucking proboscis (nose to feed)
males brood eggs on ovigers (leg appendages)
females (hollow legs filled with eggs)
horseshoe crabs (order xiphosura)
5 living species (all other extinct)
telson or tail spine to flip itself back
what was the first walking leg used for in horseshoe crab?
segments of horseshoe crab are called
prosoma (head and thorax)
opisthosomal appendages absent or modified as spinnerets (for spinning silk proteins-one of the strongest)
gas exchange by tracheae or book lungs
3 tagmata (5 segmented head, thorax, abdomen)
carapace (hard upper shield)
mandibles, modified limbs act as jaws
gills are actually legs modified for gas exchange
2 pairs of antennae
nephridia in crustacea
glands near antenna where excretion happens
if first thoracic segment fuses with head, its appendages grow as maxillipeds
what are parts of a crustacean limb?
protopod, branches join at the base
inner branch (endopod)
outer branch (exopod)
extensions on outer side (function as gills, gill cleaners, flattened)
extensions toward the body often form a spiny grinding surface
crabs, shrimps, lobsters
body of 19 segments
pereopods (walkings legs)
pleopods (swimming legs)
hoplocarida (super order of class Malacostraca)
stomatopods (manis shrimp)
eucarida, superorder of malacostraca
krill, crabs, shrimps, lobsters
superorder of Malacostraca, peracarida
isopods, amphipods, mysids
lots of eyes, colors, vicious predators snagging prey with raptorial limbs.
form feeding swarms, especially at the poles, primary food source for many whales
5th walking leg modified for swimming
appendage in crustaceans modified for feeding
1st antenna outside the eye, 2nd between the eyes
hermit and king crabs
3 to 4 pairs of walking legs, 5th reduced to gill cleaner
first and second antennae are between the eyes
having an unsegmented body and a single eye
in decapods (crabs) the stage occurs in side the egg
developmental stages of crabs
zoea (larval form)
megalops (transparent juvenile)