Unit 1 Anat Intro

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paffman7
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30972
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Unit 1 Anat Intro
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2010-08-25 21:57:23
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PT603
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Notes from 1A lecture slides
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  1. Anatomy means...
    Greek for "to cut up" or "dissect"
  2. In anatomy, function is dependent upon ____
    Structure
  3. Four subdivision of anatomy are:
    • -Gross anatomy
    • -Neuroanatomy
    • -Histology
    • -Embryology
  4. When a part is above another part it is referred to as being ____
    Superior
  5. When a part is below another it is described as being ____
    Inferior
  6. The front of your body (or side with the stomach) is considered _____
    Anterior
  7. The back of your body (where your spine is) is considered _____
    Posterior
  8. In reference to an appendage, the part farthest from your body is ____
    Distal
  9. In reference to an appendage, the part closest to your body is ____
    Proximal
  10. Cutting the body that separates the anterior side from the posterior side is considered a _____
    Coronal cut
  11. Cutting the body FROM anterior/posterior to posterior/anterior in a plane that faces superior and inferior is called a ______
    Transverse cut
  12. Making a cut that runs from anterior/posterior to posterior/anterior with a plane that faces laterally is called a _____
    Sagittal cut
  13. A position that is made possible by the joint angle decreasing is called _____
    Flexion
  14. a position that is made possible by the joint angle increasing is called _____
    Extension
  15. Abduction means ____
    "to draw away" (in reference to median plane of body)
  16. Adduction means _____
    "to draw toward" (in reference to median plane of body)
  17. Medial Rotation
    Anterior surface rotates about its long axis medially (towards midline)
  18. Lateral Rotation
    anterior surface rotates about its long axis laterally (away from midline)
  19. Supination
    Turning hand towards the natural anatomical position
  20. Pronation
    When dorsum of hand (palm) is turned forward without rotation of the upper arm (palm facing down)
  21. when a part is moved successively through flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction, it circumscribes a cone of space, with its distal point drawing a circle
    circumduction
  22. readily visible connective tissue membrane that consists of a thin layer of dense connective tissue without obvious organization of its fibers
    Fascia
  23. Organization of fascia
    • -Organized into sheets or tubes
    • -Continuous - has no beginning or end
  24. 3 types of fascia
    • -superficial fascia
    • -internal (subserous) fascia
    • -deep facsia
  25. Superficial fascia
    • -Body fat under skin
    • -Not a membrane but a padding of adipose just below the skin
    • -Contains retinacula cutis (skinligaments) – fascial bands that connect the dermis of the skin to the underlying deep fascia
  26. Internal (Subserous) fascia
    • -Defined – fascias that line thebody cavities
    • (i) Endothoracic fascia
    • (ii) Endoabdominal fascia
    • (iii) Endopelvicfascia
    • -Barely discernable linings of the thoracic and abdominal cavities
    • -Functions to affix parietal layersof serous sacs
  27. Deep fascia
    • i Defined – thin grayish layer on the surface of the muscles separable from them only by sharp dissection.
    • ii Continuous with periosteum where musclesattach to bone
    • iii Specializations of the deep fascia
    • (i) Intermuscular septa – separate muscles into compartments, provide for muscle attachments
  28. Skeletal Ligaments
    • a Defined – distinct bands of connective tissue that bind together two bones or bony segments
    • b Most fibers run in the same direction
    • c Intrinsic blend with the fibers of the joint capsule, specialized thickenings of the fibrouscapsule
    • d Extrinsic not associated with a joint capsule
  29. Visceral Ligament
    Defined – holds two visceral organs close together, allows for transmission of neurovascular structures, may contain smooth muscle
  30. Tendons
    • 1 Definition dense fibrous connective tissue whichconnect muscle to bone
    • 2 Fiber direction all in one direction
    • 3 Aponeuroses very broad, flat tendons resemblingdeep fascia but fibers are predominantly parallel vs. interwoven
  31. Tendon Sheath
    • 1 Definition closed synovial tubes which surroundtendons
    • 2 Function
    • a Nutrition
    • b Lubrication – minimize friction
  32. Bursae
    • 1 Definition “purse” closed synovial sacs
    • 2 Develop in response to friction between tendon and bone, ligament or other tendons, or between bone and skin
  33. Types of Bursae
    • a Communicating develop in close relation to a joint cavity and become continuous with the joint cavity as an extra‐articular extension or recess
    • b Non‐communicating not associated with a joint cavity
  34. Classifaction of bones based on region
    • a Axial‐ skull, vertebral column, sternum, ribs
    • b Appendicular‐ shoulder and pelvic girdles andlimbs
  35. Classification of bones based on shape
    • a Long ‐ longer than wide, tubular, shaft with twoarticular ends
    • b Short ‐ typically cuboidal in shape
    • c Flat ‐ two layers of cortical bone with thin layerof cancellous bone between
    • d Irregular ‐ various shapes
    • e Sesamoid bone ‐ bone which develops withincertain tendons to protect the tendon orincrease it mechanical advantage
    • f Accessory bone ‐ bone resulting from failure ofossification center or trauma
  36. Landmark: elevation
    "bumps"
  37. Landmark: lines, ridges, crests
    linear elevations
  38. Landmark: Tubercle, protuberance, trochanter, malleolus
    rounded elevations
  39. Landmark: Tuberosity
    roughened rounded elevation
  40. Landmark: spine, process
    sharp elevations
  41. Landmark: Protrusions external to condyle
    epicondyles
  42. Articular landmarks
    • i Facets ‐ smooth, flat articular surface
    • ii Head/condyle ‐ rounded articular area
  43. Depressions
    • i fossa - small hallow
    • ii grooves - long narrow depression
    • iii notches - indentation at edge of bone
  44. 2 classifactions of joints
    Synarthroidal and Diarthroidal
  45. 2 type of synarthroses
    • -Fibrous
    • -Cartilagenous
  46. 3 types of fibrous joints
    • -sutures
    • -gomphoses
    • -syndesmoses
  47. Sutures
    • bony surfaces are connectedby a collagenous sutural ligament or membrane,
    • 1. Bony members interlock
    • 2. Tend to ossify later in life tobecome synostoses
    • 3. i.e. – skull
  48. Gomphoses
    • joint surfaces adapted like peg in hole and connected by fibrous CT
    • i.e. – teeth
  49. syndesmoses
    • bonysurfacesare joined by an interosseous ligament, fibrous cord, or aponeurotic membrane
    • i.e. – tibiofibular joint
  50. 2 types of cartilaginous joints
    • -Symphysis
    • -Synchondroses
  51. Symphysis
    • two bony components covered with thin hyaline cartilage and directly joined by fibrocartilaginous disc/pad
    • i.e. – pubic symphysis; I‐V joints
  52. Synchondroses
    • connected by hyaline cartilage
    • 1. Function – permit bone growth while providing stability/slight mobility
    • 2. Can fuse to become synostoses
    • 3. i.e. – epiphyseal plates,sternocostal
  53. Diarthroses
    “freely moveable” Bony components indirectly connected by way of its capsule
  54. 5 components of synovial joints
    • - Fibrous capsule
    • - Joint cavity
    • - Synovial membrane
    • - Synovial fluid
    • - Articular cartilage
  55. Diarthroses accessory structures
    • - Fibrocartilaginous disks, plates, menisci
    • - Labrums
    • - Fat pads
  56. 3 classifications of synovial joints
    • - Simple
    • - Compound
    • - Complex
  57. Simple synovial joint
    One articular surface on each boney member of the joint
  58. Compound synovial joint
    more than one articular surface on each boney member of the joint
  59. Complex synovial joint
    Contains intra-articular disc or menisci
  60. 7 classifications of joints based on geometry
    • -Plane joints
    • -Ginglymus joints
    • -Trochoid joints
    • -Bicondylar joints
    • -Ellipsoidal joints
    • -Sellar joints
    • -Spheroidal joints
  61. Plane joint
    • Apposition of nearly flat surface
    • e.g. zygopophyseal joints, intercarpal, AC joint
  62. Ginglymus joints
    • (hinge joint)
    • uniaxial
    • e.g. IP's, humeroulnar
  63. Trochoid joints
    • (pivot joints)
    • osseous pivot in osterligamentous ring, uniaxial
    • e.g. proximal radioulnar joint, atlanto-axial
  64. Bicondular joints
    • Primarily allow movement in one plane, but allow small amount of rotation in plane perpendicular to this.
    • e.g knee, TMJ
  65. Ellipsoidal joints
    • Elliptical concave surface articulatig with an oval convex surfae, bi-axial
    • e.g. MCP's, Radiocarpal
    • Old nomenclature: condyloid = bicondylar + ellipsoidal
  66. Sellar joints
    • (saddle joints)
    • Each joint member has a concavoconvex surface, bi-axial
    • e.g. CMC of the thumb, calcaneocuboid, talocrural (by some)
  67. Spheroidal joints
    • (ball & socket)
    • movement is multi-axial
    • e.g. hip and shoulder
  68. Hilton's Law
    Joints are generally innervated by nerve branches innervating muscles which move that joint and the skin superficial to that joint
  69. The joint capsule contains ____ and ____
    Fibrous capsule and synovial membrane
  70. Fibrous capsule
    highley innervated, poorly vascularized
  71. Synoial membranes are ____ vascularized and _____ innervated
    highly vascularized, poorly innervated
  72. 3 types of muscle
    • Skeletal
    • Smooth
    • Cardiac
  73. Skeletal muscle
    • Striated, voluntary
    • i. location - attached to skeleton
    • ii. attachments - use proximal and distal, or origin and insertion
    • iii. innervation - PNS-GSE, GSA
  74. Smooth muscle
    • unstriated, "involuntary"
    • i. location - vessels, organs, GI & Pulmonary
    • ii. innervation - autonomic nervous system (GVE and GVA)
  75. Cardiac muscle
    • i. location - in the heart
    • ii. innervation - autonomic nervous system (GVE and GVA)
  76. Image interpretation in reference to projection
    Describes the path of the x-ray beam
  77. Image interpretation in reference to position
    used to describe the body portion closest to the film plate

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