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what is the cytoplasm?
material between plasma membrane and the nucleus
what does the cytoplasm contain?
cytosol (the fluid), cytoplasm organelles,and inclusions
provides most of the cell's ATP via aerobic cellular respiration
mitochondria contains its own what?
DNA and RNA
they also make their own ribosomes
what is cristae?
folds in the mitochondria that give the mitochondria more surface area so that more reactions happen
what are ribosomes?
large complexes containing protein and rRNA
where is the site of protein synthesis?
free ribosomes synthesis:
where proteins that will stay in the cell are made
membrane-bound ribosomes synthesis
where proteins that will leave the cell or go to the cell membrane are made
gene containing control center of the cell
what do pores in the nucleus do?
allow things in or out(mostly out)
what does chromatin do?
associates b/w DNA and protein
selectively permeable double layer membrane barrier containing pores
inner nuclear membrane?
is lined with the nuclear lamina (intermediate filaments), which maintains the shape of the nucleus
outer nuclear membrane?
it is continuous with the rough ER and is studded with ribosomes
regulates transport of large molecules into and out of nucleus
- dark-staining spherical bodies within the nucleus
- site of ribosomal RNA production
what is chromatin made up of?
- genetic material composed of DNA
- regulatory proteins
what are nucleosomes?
how is chromatin arranged?
links nucleosomes together
what are genes made up of?
what do genes do?
program amino acid sequence of polypeptides
- double stranded, component of chromosomes
- single stranded "copy" of genes
what are the 3 varieties of RNA?
- messenger RNA
- transfer RNA
- ribosomal RNA
process of making a protein?
DNA to transcript to mRNA to translation to protein
DNA double helix
- they have to antiparallel strands
- form a double helix
- the 2 helixes are help together by a hydrogen bonded b/w N-bases
how does the pairing work in DNA
most cells are in what phase?
what are the mitotic phases?
- G1 (gap 1)
- S (synthetic)
- G2 (growth)
what happens during G1?
metabolic activity and vigorous growth
what happens during S?
what happens during G2?
preparation for divison
what is G0?
cells that permanently ceases diving
- retaining the old
- ex: half o f DNA is old and the other half is new
DNA replication key components
- parents strand
- DNA polymerase
- RNA primer
short polynucleotide complimentary to parent strand
enzyme that unwinds helicases
- RNA primers get things started
- DNA polymerase come in
- Complementary nucleotides start pairing up
fluid concentration equal as the concentration inside the cell
the 2 strands of the DNA helix are _____ but are replicated in ____
different ways DNA polymerase works?
- continuous leading strand synthesized in the direction of replication
- discontinuous leading strand(synthesized in short fragments in a backwards direction)
- ASE so ENZYME
- splices together the short segments of the continuous strand
enzymes envolved in DNA replication
helicase ,primase, DNA polymerase, DNA ligase
essential for body growth and tissue repair
- mitosis- nuclear division
- cytokinesis- division of cytoplasm
phases of mitosis
control of cell division
- growth and hormones
- surface to volume ratio of cells
- contact inhibition
- anchorage dependance
surface to volume ratio
if too much volume and nor enough surface area then the cells cant keep functioning so cells will divide
when cells run into each other so they stop diving
when cells hook to something so they stop replicating
when cells move around the body cause well are not anchorage dependent and make tumors cause they don't have density dependent inhibition