A&P ch.7

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A&P ch.7
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A&P ch.7
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  1. what is the cytoplasm?
    material between plasma membrane and the nucleus
  2. what does the cytoplasm contain?
    cytosol (the fluid), cytoplasm organelles,and inclusions
  3. mitochondria
    provides most of the cell's ATP via aerobic cellular respiration
  4. mitochondria contains its own what?
    DNA and RNA

    they also make their own ribosomes
  5. what is cristae?
    folds in the mitochondria that give the mitochondria  more surface area so that more reactions happen
  6. what are ribosomes?
    large complexes containing protein and rRNA
  7. where is the site of protein synthesis?
    ribosomes
  8. free ribosomes synthesis:
    where proteins that will stay in the cell are made
  9. membrane-bound ribosomes synthesis
    where proteins that will leave the cell or go to the cell membrane are made
  10. nucleus
    gene containing control center of the cell
  11. what do pores in the nucleus do?
    allow things in or out(mostly out)
  12. what does chromatin do?
    associates b/w DNA and protein
  13. nuclear envelope
    selectively permeable double layer membrane barrier containing pores
  14. inner nuclear membrane?
    is lined with the nuclear lamina (intermediate filaments), which maintains the shape of the nucleus
  15. outer nuclear membrane?
    it is continuous with the rough ER and is studded with ribosomes
  16. pore complex?
    regulates transport of large molecules into and out of nucleus
  17. nucleoli?
    • dark-staining spherical bodies within the nucleus 
    • site of ribosomal RNA production
  18. what is chromatin made up of?
    • genetic material composed of DNA
    • Histones
    • nucleosomes
    • regulatory proteins
  19. histones?
    structural proteins
  20. what are nucleosomes?
    DNA+ histones
  21. how is chromatin arranged?
    • chromosomes
    • x shaped
  22. linker DNA?
    links nucleosomes together
  23. what are genes made up of?
    nucleic acids
  24. what do genes do?
    program amino acid sequence of polypeptides
  25. Deoxyribonucleic acid
    • DNA
    • double stranded, component of chromosomes
    • A,C,G,U
  26. Ribonucleic acid
    • RNA
    • single stranded "copy" of genes
    • ACGU
  27. what are the 3 varieties of RNA?
    • messenger RNA
    • transfer RNA
    • ribosomal RNA
  28. process of making a protein?
    DNA to  transcript to mRNA to translation to protein
  29. DNA double helix
    • they have to antiparallel strands
    • form a double helix
    • the 2 helixes are help together by a hydrogen bonded b/w N-bases
  30. how does the pairing work in DNA
    • A-T
    • C-G
  31. most cells are in what phase?
    interphase
  32. what are the mitotic phases?
    • G1 (gap 1)
    • S (synthetic)
    • G2 (growth)
  33. what happens during G1?
    metabolic activity and vigorous growth
  34. what happens during S?
    DNA replication
  35. what happens during G2?
    preparation for divison
  36. what is G0?
    cells that permanently ceases diving
  37. semiconservative replication?
    • retaining the old 
    • ex: half o f DNA is old and the other half is new
  38. DNA replication key components
    • parents strand
    • nucleotides
    • DNA polymerase
    • RNA primer
  39. RNA primer?
    short polynucleotide complimentary to parent strand
  40. helicase
    enzyme that unwinds helicases
  41. DNA replication
    • RNA primers get things started
    • DNA polymerase come in
    • Complementary nucleotides start pairing up
  42. isotonic fluid
    fluid concentration equal as the concentration inside the cell
  43. the 2 strands of the DNA helix are _____ but are replicated in ____
    • antiparallel
    • parallel
  44. different ways DNA polymerase works?
    • continuous leading strand synthesized  in the direction of replication
    • discontinuous leading strand(synthesized in short fragments in a backwards direction)
  45. DNA ligase
    • ASE so ENZYME
    • splices together the short segments of the continuous strand
  46. enzymes envolved in DNA replication
    helicase ,primase, DNA polymerase, DNA ligase
  47. essential for body growth and tissue repair
    • mitosis- nuclear division
    • cytokinesis- division of cytoplasm
  48. phases of mitosis
    • prophase
    • metaphase
    • anaphase
    • telophase
  49. control of cell division
    • growth and hormones
    • surface to volume ratio of cells
    • contact inhibition
    • anchorage dependance
  50. surface to volume ratio
    if too much volume and nor enough surface area then the cells cant keep functioning so cells will divide
  51. contact inhibition
    when cells run into each other so they stop diving
  52. anchorage dependance
    when cells hook to something so they stop replicating
  53. metastic
    when cells move around the body cause well are not anchorage dependent and make tumors cause they don't have density dependent inhibition

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