A&P chap 8

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apvg1997
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309750
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A&P chap 8
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2015-10-17 11:30:37
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A&P chap 8
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A&P chap 8
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  1. DNA is the ____ of protein synthesis
    maters blueprint
  2. are the segments of DNA carrying instructions for polypeptide chain
    genes
  3. translation
    the genetic information in the mRNA is translated into a specific protein encoded by the gene
  4. a region of DNA which codes for a single protein or polypeptide
    gene
  5. produces an mRNA copy of the gene
    transcription of DNA
  6. mRNA
    • messenger RNA
    • carries message to nucleus to ribosomes
  7. promotor
    a necessary DNA sequence that specifies the position of transcriptional initiation (on/off switch)
  8. coding region or transcription unit
    sequence of DNA "downstream" of promoter that encodes polypeptide
  9. RNA polymerazation
    to make RNA oug of a DNA templet
  10. activators
    enhancers that gets everything together and ready
  11. after the _____ the DNA starts transcribing
    promoter
  12. RNA polymerize ____DNA and makes RNA templet and then______ the DNA. This is called what?
    • unwinds
    • winds back up
    • elognation
  13. when the RNA polymerase reaches its stopping point
    termination

    now there is an mRNA ready to be released
  14. before the mRNA can be released what must happen?
    introns and exons must be taken out
  15. what do RNA codons do?
    they code for amino acids according to a "universal" genetic code
  16. mRNA that fo to ribosomes in cytoplams will ___ in the cell
    if the mRNA foes to rough ER they will____ the cell
    • stay
    • leave
  17. ribosomes
    • where rRNA is made
    • proof reads amino acids
    • moves the transitional machinery as polypeptides is being synthesized¬†
    • help tRNA match base pairing
  18. tRNA
    the adaptor which reads codons (AGUC)

    it brings amino acids according to what nucleic acids the are in the mRNA
  19. mRNA
    carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplams
  20. ribosomal RNA
    structural component of ribosomes
  21. translation stages
    • initiation
    • elongation
    • termination
  22. process in the ribosome
    • A to P to E
    • in-shift-bond-eject
  23. each bond between amino acids are what?
    hydrolysis
  24. free ribosomes do what?
    bound ribosomes in ER do what?
    • initiates synthesis of all proteins
    • complete synthesis of proteins
  25. genomes
    entire set of genes for single organism
  26. cell differentiation
    the process of cells becoming different
  27. as cell differentiate...
    genes that are no longer needed get turned off
  28. mutations
    cause a change in the genetic information
  29. what cause mutations?
    natural mistakes during DNA replication
  30. mutagens
    toxins or radiation
  31. hereditary disease
    a disease that gets passed along in genes
  32. a mutation of genes for proteins that control the _____ may lead to cancer
    cell growth and differentiation

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