A&P ch 9

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  1. metabolism
    all the chemical reactions necessary to maintain life
  2. catabolic reactions
    breakdown of complex structures into simpler ones (monomers)
  3. what are the building blocks?
  4. anabolic reactions
    synthesis of larger molecules from smaller ones? (protein synthesis)
  5. catabolism includes what?
    • digestion (breaking down of food by hydrolysis)
    • cellular respiration
  6. what is cellular respiration?
    food fuels are oxidized within cells to carbon dioxide and water and some of the energy is captures to produce ATP
  7. we eat to what?
    get monomers
  8. glycogen
    storage of glucose
  9. we break down protein into what?
    amino acids to make new proteins
  10. we go through ____ to make ATP and be able to make ___
    • catabolism¬†
    • anabolism
  11. oxidation
    a substance loses electrons or is oxidized
  12. reduction
    a substance gains electrons or is reduced
  13. oxidation of organic molecules occurs via what?
    gain of oxygen or loss of hydrogen
  14. what does cellular respiration do?
    oxidizes glucose in a series of steps
  15. when oxidation happens there is always..
    a reductions and vise versa
  16. ATP synthesis
    energy released from oxidation reactions is used to produce ATP
  17. substrate level phosphorylation
    DIRECT transfer of high energy phosphate bond from metabolic substrate to ADP
  18. oxidative phosphorylation
    INDIRECT phosphorylation of ADP via the electron transport chain
  19. phosphorylation
    addition of high energy phosphate bound to a molecule (addition of a phosphate group)
  20. ADP
    coenzyme that will help make ATP
  21. concentration gradient
    the difference in concentration of a particular substance across a solution
  22. oxidative phosphorylation
    • carried out by the electron transport proteins in the cristae of mitochondria
    • nutrient energy is pumped by hydrogen ions into inter membrane space
    • a steep H+ concentration across membrane
    • When H+ ions diffuse back across the membrane through ATP synthase, energy is captured and attaches phosphate groups to ADP
    • high yield of ATP
  23. overall cellular respiration
    Image Upload
  24. glycolysis
    • one of path for ATP production
    • breaks down glucose(6 sugars) and uses 2 ATO to gain 2 molecules PYRUVATE, 4 ATP abd 2 NADH
    • low yield of ATP
  25. the krebs
    • a path of ATP production
    • completes the breakdown of glycose by converting pyruvic into acetyl CoA
    • low yield of ATP
  26. lysis
    to break down
  27. where does glycolysis occur?
    in the cytoplasm
  28. where does krebs cycle occur?
    in the matrix of the mitochondria
  29. electron transport chain
    electrons pump out through electron chain with herlp of NADH and make a concentration gradient then because of diffusion they are pumped back in through ATP synthase
  30. chemiosmosis
    is an energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy in the form of a H+ gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work.

    aka. so things diffuse back in and cases something to happen
  31. anaerobic pathway (fermentation)
    • happens when there is not enough oxygen
    • Glycolysis plus reactions that regenerate NAH+ which can then be reused by glycolysis
    • Pyruvic acid is reduced to lactic acid
  32. what macromolecules can be used to generate ATP?
    sugars, amino acids, glycerol, fatty acids
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A&P ch 9
2015-10-24 17:33:03

A&P ch 9
A&P ch 9
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