Chapter 8, Digestive system

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Chapter 8, Digestive system
2015-10-18 02:31:41
medical terminology

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  1. an/o
    anus, ring
  2. chol/e
    bile, gall
  3. cholecyst/o
  4. col/o, colon/o
    colon, large intestine
  5. -emesis
  6. enter/o
    small intestine
  7. esophag/o
  8. gastr/o
    stomach, belly
  9. hepat/o
  10. -lithiasis
    presence of stones
  11. -pepsia
    digest, digestion
  12. -phagia
    eating, swallowing
  13. proct/o
    anus and rectum
  14. rect/o
    rectum, straight
  15. sigmoid/o
    sigmoid colon
  16. aerophagia
    The excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking, and is a common cause of gas in the stomach.
  17. anastomosis
    A surgical connection between two hollow or tubular structures; plural, anatomoses.
  18. anorexia nervosa
    An eating disorder characterized by a false perception of body appearance that leads to an intense fear of gaining weight and a refusal to maintain a normal body weight.
  19. antiemetic
    Medication administered to prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting.
  20. aphthous ulcers
    Gray-white pits with a red border that appear in the soft tissues lining the mouth; also known as canker sores or mouth ulcers.
  21. ascites
    An abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity.
  22. bariatrics
    The branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of obesity and associated diseases.
  23. borboygmus
    The rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine.
  24. bulimia nervosa
    An eating disorder characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors, such as self-induced vomiting or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or other medications .
  25. cachexia
    A condition of physical wasting away due to the loss of weight and muscle mass that occurs in patients with diseases such as advanced cancer or AIDS.
  26. celiac disease
    An inherited autoimmune disorder characterized by a severe reaction to food containing gluten; also known as gluten intolerance.
  27. cheilosis
    A disorder of the lips characterized by cracklike sores at the corners of the mouth.
  28. cholangiography
    A radiographic examination of the bile ducts with the use of a contrast medium.
  29. cholangitis
    An acute infection of the bile duct characterized by pain in the upper-right quadrant of the abdomen, fever, and jaundice.
  30. cholecystectomy
    The surgical removal of the gallbladder.
  31. cholecystitis
    Inflammation of the gallbladder; usually associated with gallstones.
  32. choledocholithotomy
    An incision into the common bile duct for the removal of gallstones.
  33. cholelithiasis
    The presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts.
  34. cirrhosis
    A progressive degenerative disease of the liver characterized by scarring.
  35. colonoscopy
    The direct visual examination of the inner surface of the entire colon, from the rectum to the cecum.
  36. colostomy
    The surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the colon and the body surface.
  37. Crohn's disease diverticulitis
    a chronic autoimmune disorder that can occur anywhere in the digestive tract; however, it is most often found in the ileum and in the colon.
  38. diverticulosis
    The chronic presence of an abnormal number of diverticula in the colon.
  39. dyspepsia
    Pain or discomfort in digestion; also known as indigestion.
  40. dysphagia
    Difficulty in swallowing.
  41. enteritis
    Inflammation of the small intestine caused by eating or drinking substances contaminated with viral or bacterial pathogens.
  42. eructation
    The act of belching or raising gas orally from the stomach.
  43. esophageal varices
    Enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus.
  44. esophagogastroduodenoscopy
    An endoscopic procedure that allows direct visualization of the upper GI tract; this includes the esophagus, stomach, and upper duodenum.
  45. gastroduodenostomy
    The establishment of an anastomosis between the upper portion of the stomach and the duodenum.
  46. gastroesophageal reflux disease
    The upward flow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus; also known as GERD.
  47. gastrostomy tube
    The surgical placement of a feeding tube from the exterior of the body directly into the stomach.
  48. hematemesis
    The vomiting of blood.
  49. Hemoccult test 
    A laboratory test for hidden blood in the stools; also known as fecal occult blood test.
  50. hepatitis
    Inflammation of the liver usually caused by a viral infection.
  51. herpes labialis
    Blisterlike sores on the lips and adjacent tissue caused by the oral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1); also known as cold sores or fever blisters.
  52. hiatal hernia
    An anatomical abnormality in which a portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest though an opening in the diaphragm.
  53. hyperemesis
    Extreme, persistent vomiting that can cause dehydration.
  54. ileus
    The partial or complete blockage of the small intestine, large intestine, or both caused by the stopping of normal peristalsis.
  55. inguinal hernia
    The protrusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin.
  56. jaundice
    A yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and eyes caused by greater-than-normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood.
  57. leukoplakia
    An abnormal white precancerous lesion (sore) that develops on the tongue or the inside of the cheek.
  58. melena
    The passage of black, tarry, and foul-smelling stools that is caused by the presence of digested blood.
  59. morbid obesity
    The condition of weighing two or more times the ideal weight or having a body mass index value greater than 40; also known as severe obesity.
  60. nasogastric intubation
    The placement of a feeding tube through the nose and into the stomach.
  61. obesity
    An excessive accumulation of fat in the body.
  62. palatoplasty
    The surgical repair of a cleft palate or cleft lip.
  63. peptic ulcers
    Sores that affect the mucous membranes of the digestive system caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylorior by medications, such as aspirin, that irritate the mucous membranes.
  64. peristalsis
    A series of wavelike contractions of the smooth muscles in a single direction that moves the food forward into the digestive system.
  65. polyp
    A mushroomlike growth from the surface of a mucous membrane; not all polyps are malignant.
  66. proctologist
    A physician who specializes in disorders of the colon, rectum, and anus.
  67. regurgitation
    The return of swallowed food into the mouth.
  68. salmonellosis
    An infectious disease of the intestines that is transmitted by food contaminated with feces; also referred to as salmonella.
  69. sigmoidoscopy
    The endoscopic examination of the interior of the rectum, sigmoid colon, and possibly a portion of the descending colon.
  70. stomatitis
    An inflammation of the mucosa of the mouth.
  71. trismus
    Any restriction to the opening of the mouth caused by trauma, surgery, or radiation associated with the treatment of oral cancer.
  72. ulcerative colitis
    A chronic condition of unknown cause in which repeated episodes of inflammation in the rectum and large intestine cause ulcers and irritation.
  73. volvulus
    Twisting of the intestine upon itself, causing an obstruction.
  74. xerostomia
    The lack of adequate saliva due to diminished secretions by the salivary glands; also known as dry mouth.