Western Civ I (Week 7)

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  1. The High Middle Ages (ca. 900-1300) Economy and Society
    • after the breakup of the Carolingian Empire.
    • economic expansion
    • population doubled
  2. The Social Orders
    • oratores (“those who pray”), namely the clergy and monks.
    • bellatores (“fighters”), who were the nobles, usually consisting of the lords and vassals, as well as knights.
    • laboratores (“workers”), peasants. SERFS
    • some SERFS free, others not
    • SERFS considered "silent majority"
  3. A Society of “Personal Dependency”
    • b/t lords and the vassals. "lord's man"
    • b/t lords and peasents/serfs (once a serf always a serf)
    • the lord's man
    • fought and served lord on voluntary basis
    • lord would provide food, clothing, selter and arms and a fief (land given as award)
    • fief is how we get the word "feudalism"
  5. Agricultural Innovations
    • three-field system
    • iron plowshare
    • farmers used horses (and oxen)
    • more food, better food
  6. Towns and Cities
    Paris, London and Siena, Italy really sprung up
  7. GUILD
    • formed by urban merchants and artisans
    • hoped to promote economic regulations and self-protection
    • social and spitual functions as well
    • master > journeyman (day laborer) > apprentice (younger learning trade)
  8. Industry and Commerce
    • cloth industry on rise (fueled by water mills)
    • mining tech
    • iron forging
    • advent of "credit"
    • USURY - provided loan and would charge interest (Church banned)
  9. The Expansion of Trade
    • improvments in transportation
    • fairs (short-term markets)
    • compass and stern-rudder
    • traded with far east Mongol empire (formed by Genghis Khan (ca. 1162-1227))
  10. Marco Polo
    • traded with the Orient
    • Venetian merchant
    • traved to China spent 17 years there
    • on court of Kublai Khan
    • memoirs Description of the World (1298)
  11. The High Middle Ages – England
    • “fragmentation” many small kingdoms
    • Viking raids occupied them
  12. KING ALFRED THE GREAT (r. 871-899)
    • "father of the English Navy"
    • 1st king of England
    • ruler of Wessex
    • paid tribute to vikings, but later raised an army and defeated them
  13. Edward the Confessor (r. 1042- 1066)
    • last Anglo-Saxon king of England
    • a saint of the Church
    • died childless
    • Harold of Wessex and William of Normandy potential heirs
    • Harold nominated King
    • Wiliam invaded England and became King at the BATTLE OF HASTINGS
  14. WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR (r. 1066-1089)
    • first Norman King of England
    • "Domesday Book" conducted cencus
  15. Norman Kings
    • William the Conqueror
    • Richard the Lionheart and
    • King John
    • French King confiscated King John's territories in France
    • King John was unable to get them back
    • aka "great paper" in latin
    • English freeman have rights
    • King John forced to sign in 1215
    • King is not above the law in his realm
  17. The High Middle Ages – France
    • heir of the former Carolingian Empire.
    • Capetian dynasty now ruled
  18. Hugh Capet (r. 987-996).
    first Capetian king in France
  19. The High Middle Ages - The Holy Roman Empire
    • refers to what would become Germany
    • looked back to events from the life of Charlemagne (crowned emperor by the Pope)
    • "divine" source of power and authority
  20. Frederick Barbarossa (r. 1152-1190),
    • well know German Emperor HRE
    • claimed to have highest authority
    • involved in Third Crusade
  21. The High Middle Ages - Spain
    • Still under Muslim rule
    • RECONQUISTA - Christian reconquest of Islamic Spain
    • recapture of Toledo
    • Christian kingdoms of Castile, Aragon, and
    • Portugal started to form
    • Granada - last remaining Muslim stronghold
  22. The High Middle Ages – The Church and Christianity
    "the force" of the middle ages
  23. “The Papal Monarchy”
    • Triregnum - three-tiered crown
    • Curia -Pope's court
    • CARDINALS - popes advisors and legates, red robes and hats, elected new popes
    • excommunication - you would go to hell
  24. The Great Schism (1054)
    • pope sent cardinal to Constantinople
    • they both excommunicated each other
    • Latin and Greek churches no longer in communion
  25. Church vs. State
    • popes more powerful than emperors and kings
    • Pope Innocent III (most powerful pope) (r. 1198-1216) vs. King John of England (Magna Carta)
    • King Henry II (r. 1154-1189) and Archbishop of Canterbury THOMAS BECKET (1118-1170) (Tried in secular courts, Becket assasinated, became "martyr")
    • Pope Gregory VII (r. 1073-1085) became skeptical about "lay meddling", forbid "lay investiture"
    • Emperor Henry IV (r. 1056-1106) appointed archbishop of Milan
    • Henry excommunicated by Gregory and HRE abonded him and forced him to repent
  27. The Crusades
    • Muslims were in control of the Holy Land
    • Muslim Turks threatened Byzantine Empire
    • Byzantine Empire petitioned the Pope for assistance
    • Council of Clermont in 1095 called for the recapture of the Holy Land
    • 4 “major” crusades
  28. The First Crusade (1095 - 1099)
    • Going on “pilgrimage.” instead of crusade
    • Promised salvation as reward for fight for Holy Land
    • Crux means cross and it where word Cruade comes from
    • 50,000 men took Antioch and Jerusalem
    • Crusaders victorious
  29. Third Crusade (1189-1192).
    • Sultan Saladin had captured Jerusalem from the
    • Christians in 1187
    • the led to the Third Crusade
    • Monarchs such as Richard the Lionheart, Philip II of France, and Emperor Frederick Barbarossa all went on this crusade
    • Crusade failed
  30. FRANCIS OF ASSISI (ca. 1182-1226)
    • Franciscans - "friars" monks that went out into the world
    • gave up pocessions and became a beggar
    • Order of Friars Minor
    • preached penance and served the poor
  31. Dominic Guzman (1170-1221)
    DOMINICANS - Friars, Order of Preachers, or Dominicans evangelistic
    • Founded by the Papacy
    • Combated Heresy (such as Albigenses and Waldenses)
    • Forced penance, imprisionment and sometime execution
  33. Medieval Spirituality
    • Bread and Wine was truly considered Christ
    • Corpus Christi
  35. Virgin Mary
    • Rosary Beads
    • Marian devotion
    temporary place of punishment where Christians would have their “venial sins” purged before their entrance into heaven.
  37. The High Middle Ages – Learning
    • Development of Schools (trained priests and monks)
    • Trivium - "primary" education (grammar, Latin, rhetoric, logic)
    • Quadrivium - "Secondary" Education (music theory, arithmetc, geometry, astronomy)
    • UNIVERSITY - students were grouped into “nations.”
  38. Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109)
    attempted to provide locical proof that God existed
    • made use of Aristotelian logic in their own intellectual pursuits
    • friars at universities
    • believed faith and reason were harmonious
    • Dominican friar named THOMAS AQUINAS (1225-1274) most famous, wrote Summa Thologica, important for Catholic theology
    • musicians and poets who entertained those at court usually by singing of, or narrating tales about, erotic
    • love.
    a knight devoted to courtesy, piety, and idealism, trying to win the heart of a fair maiden
    • "everyday language of the common people."
    • Not Latin any longer
    • Romance languages like Italian, French, and Spanish, which had descended from Latin, as well as the Germanic language Old English.
  43. Vernacular Literature
    • Chanson de Roland (French)
    • Beowolf (Old English)
    • Dante's The Divine Comedy (Italian)
  44. Medieval Architecture
    • Romanesque - Stone, Sculpture, Arches
    • ie St. Sernin de Toulose in France
    • GOTHIC - orgins in France, pointed arches, stained-glass windows, flying buttresses
    • ie Chartres Cathedral
  45. Jews during Middle Ages
    • anti-semitism culture
    • practiced usury (loaning with interest)
    • "blood libel" rumors (sacrificed Christian children)
    • persecuted
  46. ELEANOR OF AQUITAINE (1122-1204)
    Queen and wife of first King Louis VII of France and later King Henry II of England
  47. Clare of Assisi (1194-1253)
    • nun/abbess devoted to poverty
    • formed Order of Sisters of St. Francis (aka "poor clares")
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Western Civ I (Week 7)
2015-10-29 07:22:22
Western civilization

Western Civ I (Week 7)
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