*1-2 lecture

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*1-2 lecture
2015-10-21 22:43:17
*1-2 lecture
*1-2 lecture
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  1. -name the medical imagery that penetrates tissues to darken photographic film beneath the body. 

    -injects or swallows radiopaque substance. fills hallow structures, blood vessels, and intestinal tracts.

    -Dense tissue appears white
    Radiography (X-ray)
  2. name the medical imagery that uses low-intensity x-rays and computer analysis.

    -slice-type images, and increases sharpness of image.
    Computed tomography or CAT scan
  3. name the medical imagery that assesses metabolic state of tissues, distinguishes tissues most active at a given moment.
    -inject radioactively labeled glucose.
    -image color shows tissues using the most glucose at that moment, and damaged tissues appear dark.
    Positron emission tomography (PET scan)
  4. ◦Second oldest and second most widely used
    ◦Mechanics–High-frequency soundwaves–echo back from internal organs
  5. what is the major component that makes up the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane?
    Phospholipid bilayer.
  6. what do lysosomes do?
    intracellular digestion, autophagy (digests of worn organelles), autolysis (programmed cell death), breakdown glycogen to release glucose.
  7. glucose is released from the ___, and insulin is released from the ___
    liver, pancreas
  8. what do peroxisomes do
    detoxify the body of drugs, neutralize free radicals.
  9. What does Rough ER do?
    • -synthesizes and packages proteins and phospholipids (continuous w/NE).
    • -Contains ribosomes.
  10. 1) define homeostasis

    2) what 2 systems control homeostasis
    1) —dynamic balance between intracellular and extracellular environments

    2) nervous and endocrine system
  11. examples of positive & neg feedback.
    • Pos=child birth, blood clotting.
    • Neg=glucose levels, body temp
  12. 6 most common elements in human body
    C, H, O, N, Ca, P=phosphorus
  13. 1) chemical bond names: when 2+ atoms share or loose/gain an electron
    2) positively and negatively charged ions
    • 1) covalent & ionic bond respectively.
    • 2) cation, anion
  14. which bonds are strongest & weakest
    ionic & H bonds
  15. 1) ____ release H, ____ accept H.
    2) as H increases ____ decreases. as H decreases ____ increases
    3) what's lactiv acid converted to
    • 1) acids, bases
    • 2) acidity twice.
    • 3) piruvic acid
  16. elements in inorganic vs organic compounds
    Water in inorganic, Carbon in organic
  17. 1) 3 monosaccharides
    2) 3 disaccharides
    3) 3 Polysaccharides
    • 1) glucose, galactose, fructose
    • 2) Sucrose=glucose+fructose,
    • Lactose=glucose+galactose
    • Maltose=glucose+glucose

    3) glycogen, starch, cellulose
  18. Glycolysis breaks down lipids in a process called  ___, which ____ energy
    catabolism, releases
  19. what does amphipathic mean
    one end is hydrophilic. the other hydrophobic.
  20. steroids are synthesized from___
  21. Protein is made of ___ and ____.
    3 ____ make a codon.
    • amino acids and enzymes. 
    • amino acids make a codon.
  22. Differences between RNA and DNA
    • DNA: Thymine, is 100 mill-billion nucleotides, sexual reproduction.
    • RNA: Uricil, 70-10,000 nucleotides, protein synthesis.
  23. 1) What does DNA and RNA stand for

    2) what does AMP, ADP, and ATP stand for
    1) Deoxyribonucleic acid, & ribonucleic acid.

    2) adenosine 5' monophosphate, adenosine 5' diphosphate, adenosine 5' triphosphate
  24. name 3 forms of endocytosis
    1)phagocytosis (eating), pintocytosis (drinking), and Receptor-mediated endocytosis (forms clathrin coated vesicle directed into the cell)
  25. # of ATP produced by anaerobic and aerobic respiration respectively
    glycolysis=reactant yields 2 & 36
  26. what are nucleotides made of
    phosphate group and nitrogenous base
  27. fact vs theory in this class
    fact=nothing can change it, theory: possible to disprove
  28. squamous cell shape & location
    • flat, scaly, bulge at mucleus.
    • esophagus and epidermis
  29. shape and location of cuboidal cell shape
    cubed, liver
  30. columnar shape and location
    rectangle, stomach, intestines
  31. polygonal shape
    5+ sides
  32. stellate shape and locaton
    like a star, neurons
  33. spheroidal or ovoid shape and locaton
    oval, WBC's
  34. discoid shape and locaton
    like a disk, RBC's
  35. fusiform shape and location
    thick middle, tapered ends,  smooth muslce
  36. fiberous shape and location
    long slender treadlike, skeletal muscles and axons
  37. Why are cells so small
    the higher the surface to volume ratio the higher the metabolism (smaller cells have a larger surface than volume).