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-name the medical imagery that penetrates tissues to darken photographic film beneath the body.
-injects or swallows radiopaque substance. fills hallow structures, blood vessels, and intestinal tracts.
-Dense tissue appears white
name the medical imagery that uses low-intensity x-rays and computer analysis.
-slice-type images, and increases sharpness of image.
Computed tomography or CAT scan
name the medical imagery that assesses metabolic state of tissues, distinguishes tissues most active at a given moment.
-inject radioactively labeled glucose.
-image color shows tissues using the most glucose at that moment, and damaged tissues appear dark.
Positron emission tomography (PET scan)
◦Second oldest and second most widely used
◦MechanicsHigh-frequency soundwavesecho back from internal organs
what is the major component that makes up the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane?
what do lysosomes do?
intracellular digestion, autophagy (digests of worn organelles), autolysis (programmed cell death), breakdown glycogen to release glucose.
glucose is released from the ___, and insulin is released from the ___
what do peroxisomes do
detoxify the body of drugs, neutralize free radicals.
What does Rough ER do?
- -synthesizes and packages proteins and phospholipids (continuous w/NE).
- -Contains ribosomes.
1) define homeostasis
2) what 2 systems control homeostasis
1) dynamic balance between intracellular and extracellular environments
2) nervous and endocrine system
examples of positive & neg feedback.
- Pos=child birth, blood clotting.
- Neg=glucose levels, body temp
6 most common elements in human body
C, H, O, N, Ca, P=phosphorus
1) chemical bond names: when 2+ atoms share or loose/gain an electron
2) positively and negatively charged ions
- 1) covalent & ionic bond respectively.
- 2) cation, anion
which bonds are strongest & weakest
ionic & H bonds
1) ____ release H, ____ accept H.
2) as H increases ____ decreases. as H decreases ____ increases
3) what's lactiv acid converted to
- 1) acids, bases
- 2) acidity twice.
- 3) piruvic acid
elements in inorganic vs organic compounds
Water in inorganic, Carbon in organic
1) 3 monosaccharides
2) 3 disaccharides
3) 3 Polysaccharides
- 1) glucose, galactose, fructose
- 2) Sucrose=glucose+fructose,
3) glycogen, starch, cellulose
Glycolysis breaks down lipids in a process called ___, which ____ energy
what does amphipathic mean
one end is hydrophilic. the other hydrophobic.
steroids are synthesized from___
Protein is made of ___ and ____.
3 ____ make a codon.
- amino acids and enzymes.
- amino acids make a codon.
Differences between RNA and DNA
- DNA: Thymine, is 100 mill-billion nucleotides, sexual reproduction.
- RNA: Uricil, 70-10,000 nucleotides, protein synthesis.
1) What does DNA and RNA stand for
2) what does AMP, ADP, and ATP stand for
1) Deoxyribonucleic acid, & ribonucleic acid.
2) adenosine 5' monophosphate, adenosine 5' diphosphate, adenosine 5' triphosphate
name 3 forms of endocytosis
1)phagocytosis (eating), pintocytosis (drinking), and Receptor-mediated endocytosis (forms clathrin coated vesicle directed into the cell)
# of ATP produced by anaerobic and aerobic respiration respectively
glycolysis=reactant yields 2 & 36
what are nucleotides made of
phosphate group and nitrogenous base
fact vs theory in this class
fact=nothing can change it, theory: possible to disprove
squamous cell shape & location
- flat, scaly, bulge at mucleus.
- esophagus and epidermis
shape and location of cuboidal cell shape
columnar shape and location
rectangle, stomach, intestines
stellate shape and locaton
like a star, neurons
spheroidal or ovoid shape and locaton
discoid shape and locaton
like a disk, RBC's
fusiform shape and location
thick middle, tapered ends, smooth muslce
fiberous shape and location
long slender treadlike, skeletal muscles and axons
Why are cells so small
the higher the surface to volume ratio the higher the metabolism (smaller cells have a larger surface than volume).