Patho Test 2: CNS (The Brain Forebrain)
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Who much does the brain weight?
How much of CO does brain receive?
What are the 3 main divisions of the brain?
1. Forebrain: 2 cerebral hemispheres
2. Midbrain: Corpora quadrigemina, tegmentum and cerebral reduncles
3. Hindbrain: Cerebellum, pons, medulla
What is the Reticular Formation?
1. Network of connected nuclei, regulate vital reflexes, CV and resp fx.
2. Ascending Tract: brings auditory responses and sensation from the body/spinal cord to the forebrain, thalamus, cortex and occipatal region
What composes the Reticular Activating System and what is it responsible for?
Reticular Formation plus the Cerebral Cortex
Controls being awake
What composes the forebrain?
- Cerebrum (largest portion of the brain)
- Cerebral Nuclei (basal ganglia)
What composes the brain stem?
Midbrain, medulla oblongata and pons
What is the purpose of the gyri, sulci and fissures in cerebrum?
To increase cortical surface area
What is gray matter?
Cell bodies and dendrites of neurons
Receives, integrates, stores and transmits info
What is white matter?
Lies beneath the cerebral cortex
Composed of myelinated nerve fibers which neuron messages throughout the body
Which fissure separates the 2 cerebral hemispheres?
The longitudinal fissure
Where is the Central Sulcus (Rolandic Sulcus)?
Posterior margin of the frontal lobe, divides frontal lobe from the parietal lobes
Where is the lateral (Sylvian) fissure?
Borders inferiorly on the frontal lobe, divides frontal and temporal lobes
What composes the Central Nuclei or Basal Ganglia and what does it control?
Fine tuning effect on motor movements; efferent pathways outside of the medula
What does the Pre-Frontal Cortex control?
Goal-oriented behavior, concentration, short-term memory recall, elaboration of thought, inhibition of emotions.
What does the Pre-Motor Cortex control?
- (Brodman's Area 6)
- Programmed motor movement
- Part of the basal ganglia
- "muscle memory"
What does the Primary Motor Area do?
- (Brodman's Area 4)
- Primary somatic motor area
- Voluntary movements
- somatotropic organization "humunculus"
- electrical stimulation of this area causes parts of the body to move
Primary Somatic Sensory Area?
- Parietal lobe of cerebral cortex
- "humunculus" for touch
- thermoreceptors, photoreceptors, mechanoreceptors
What is contralateral control?
cerebral impulses control function on the opposite part of the body; corticospinal tracts of the pyramidal system
Motor Cortex provides _____ whereby the left hemisphere of the brain control______ side of the body?
Sensory cortex allows control whereby the ______ hemisphere receives ________ from the Right side of the body
Where is Broca's Speech area (Brodman's 44, 45) located in the brain and controls ________ aspect of speech?
- Left hemisphere, inferior frontal gyrus,
A ______ typically causes destruction/damage to Broca's area and ______________ will be the patient's symptoms
- inability or difficulty forming words (expressive aphasia or dysphasia)
What does the Parietal Lobe control?
Somatic Sensory Input (Brodmann's 3, 1, 2)
What does the Occipital Lobe control? Which Brodman areas?
- Visual Cortex: receives info from the retina- carries visual information to the brain
- (Brodman's 17,18,19.)
What does the Temporal Lobe Control?
- Wernicke area
- Long-term Memory
Wernicke's Area (Brodman 22) is located exactly on the __________ of the temporal lobe and it controls___________? Patient presents with _____________
- Superior, temporal gyrus
- Sensory Speech (reception and interpretation of speech)
- Receptive aphasia or dysphasia
What is the Limbic System composed of?
- Part of the telecenphalon
- Described by Broca
- Papez circuit: amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, fornix, mammillary body of the hypothalamus, thalamus amd congulate gyrus and other structures
What does the Limbic System Control?
- An extension of the olfactory system
- Primitive behavior
- Visceral responses to behavior/action
- Feeding behavior
- Circadian rhythms
- Emotional responses
What are the components of the Diencephalon?
What is inside the Epithalamus?
pineal gland-melatonin secretion
What does the thalamus do?
Largest major integration system for afferent impulses; relay center
What does the Hypothalamus do?
Maintains constant internal environment, ANS; hormones, temperature, expression/behavior, stress response
What does the Subthalamus do? In what disease is this region damaged?
Part of the Basal Ganglia (fine motor control) damaged in Parkinson's
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