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List the Monosaccharides
Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
List the Disaccharides
- Sucrose (Gluc + Fruc)
- Lactose (Gluc + Galac)
- Maltose (Gluc + Gluc)
List the Polysaccharides
- Starches (strings of glucose)
- Fiber (strings of monosaccharides, usually glucose)
Which sugar is the sweetest
What is the cause of Primary Lactose Intolerance?
Differentiate between Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load
Glycemic Index: ranking of food according to the level to which a food raises blood glucose levels compared with a reference food
Glycemic Load: Considers total glycemic index effect of a mixed meal or dietary plan; Measures both quality and quantity of of the effect of carbohydrates on blood glucose
Differentiate between Soluble and Insoluble Fiber
Soluble: May dissolve in fluids and thicken them; pectin, mucilage, psyllium seed husk, guar gum, and other gums
Insoluble: Cannot dissolve in fluides; cellulose and hemicellulose, lignin
What are the Insoluble Fibers?
Sources are wheats and nuts
What are the Soluble Fibers
- Guar and other Gums
Sources are beans, brans, legumes and some vegetables
Differentiate between Refined and Unrefined Grains
Unrefined: prepared for consumption while they contain their original components; whole-grain products
Refined: have been taken apart; what, rice, oats, and rye
What are the food functions of Fats?
- Source of energy
- Food processing
- Nutrient Source
What are the physiological Functions of Fats?
- Stored energy
- Organ Protection
- Temperature Regulation
What is a Triglyceride?
Compound consisting of three fatty acids and one glycerol
What is a Sterol?
A fatlike class of lipids, serve vital functions in the body
Dietary cholesterol accounts for ___% of the total cholesterol in the body
Dietary cholesterol accounts for 25% of the total cholesterol in the body
Lecithin is a constituent of ________.
Lecithin is a constituent of phospholipids.
______ is a constituent of phospholipids
Lecithin is a constituent of phospholipids
What is the bodies main phospholipid?
Lipid and Fat digestion occurs in the ______
Lipid and Fat digestion occurs in the mall intestine
Most fatty acids found naturally in food are cis or trans bonded?
What is the process of hydrogenation?
Artificial saturation of the fatty acids by adding hydrogen at the double bond; makes fats soluble and more stable
True of False: Saturate Fats may increase risk of coronary heart disease
What are the vitamins/mineral hardest to get when eating out?
Vitamin A, Vitamin C, and Calcium
Differentiate between: Vegan, Lacto-Vegetarian, Ovo-Lacto-Vegetarian
Vegan: only plant foods
Lacto-Vegetarian: Only plants plus dairy
Ovo-Lacto-Vegetarian: Only plants, dairy, and eggs
What nutrients are missing in a vegetarian diet?
- Vitamin D
- Vitamin B12
- Omega-3 Fatty Acids
What is Dysphagia?
Inability to swallow thin liquids
What are the phases of swallowing?
Phase A: Oral Phase (voluntary); tongue presses food against palate, forcing into pharynx
Phase B: Pharyngeal Phase (involuntary); wave of peristalsis forces a bolus between tonsillary pilars
Phase C: Esophageal Phase (involuntary); relaxation of esophagus allows bolus to move down
What is the Three-Level Dysphagia Diet?
Phase 1: Pureed - For people with severely reduced oral preparatory stages; foods must be spoon or pudding thick, homogenous textures emphasized
Phase 2: Mechanically Altered - People who tolerate minimal chewing or moderate impairment; no coarse texture foods, mostly pureed
Phase 3: Advanced - People who can chew soft textures, mild impairment; Soft texture foods with no tough skin, can have soft/moist meat
Esophagitis is inflammation of the _____
Esophagitis is inflammation of the lower esophagus
What are the recommendations for managing a patient with GERD?
- Avoid lying down post eating
- Avoid tight clothing
- Avoid eating "on the run"
- Avoid certain medications (some may initiate heartburn)
- Avoid high Fat or Spicy foods
Can infants display GERD?
Yes; may subside after 6months when transitioning to solid foods
What is Peptic Ulcer Disease
Term used to describe break or ulceration in the protective mucosal lining of the lower esophagus, stomach, or duodenum
What are the main causes of duodenal ulcers?
H. pylori infection or use of NSAIDs
What is Triple Therapy?
- Therapy to combat H. pylori infection
- Combination of antibiotics and acid-reducing medications taken for ~10-14 days
- Involves at least 2 antibiotics plus the acid reducers
- Acid-Reducers relieve pain as well as aid the antibiotics
What is Dumping Syndrome?
A group of symptoms, including weakness, abdominal discomfort, and sometimes abnormally rapid bowel evacuation occurring after meals in some patients who have undergone gastric surgery.
True or False: Only partial gastrectomy will cause Dumping Syndrome
False: Both partial and total gastrectomy will cause Dumping Syndrome
What is Celiacs Disease?
Chronic autoimmune disorder in which the mucosa of the small intestines (duodenum and jujenum especially) are damaged by dietary gluten intake
Milk allergy is caused by _____, while lactose intolerance is caused by ______.
Milk allergy is caused by an issue with the immune system, while lactose intolerance is caused by enzyme deficiency.
What are sources of High and Low lactose?
High Lactose Content: Buttermilk, anything with cream, ricotta, yogurt, milk products, cheese
Low Lactose Content: Aged cheese, butter/margarine, certain breads and drugs, certain processed foods, sherbert, some yogurts
A typical diet will last ____, and a low fat diet will typically last _____.
A typical diet will last 3 months, and a low fat diet will typically last 6-12 months.