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2015-10-19 16:00:03
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  1. List the Monosaccharides
    Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
  2. List the Disaccharides
    • Sucrose (Gluc + Fruc)
    • Lactose (Gluc + Galac)
    • Maltose (Gluc + Gluc)
  3. List the Polysaccharides
    • Starches (strings of glucose)
    • Fiber (strings of monosaccharides, usually glucose)
  4. Which sugar is the sweetest
  5. What is the cause of Primary Lactose Intolerance?
    Genetic Factors
  6. Differentiate between Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load
    Glycemic Index: ranking of food according to the level to which a food raises blood glucose levels compared with a reference food

    Glycemic Load: Considers total glycemic index effect of a mixed meal or dietary plan; Measures both quality and quantity of of the effect of carbohydrates on blood glucose
  7. Differentiate between Soluble and Insoluble Fiber
    Soluble: May dissolve in fluids and thicken them; pectin, mucilage, psyllium seed husk, guar gum, and other gums

    Insoluble: Cannot dissolve in fluides; cellulose and hemicellulose, lignin
  8. What are the Insoluble Fibers?
    • Cellulose
    • Hemicellulose 
    • Legnin

    Sources are wheats and nuts
  9. What are the Soluble Fibers
    • Pectin
    • Mucilage
    • Guar and other Gums

    Sources are beans, brans, legumes and some vegetables
  10. Differentiate between Refined and Unrefined Grains
    Unrefined: prepared for consumption while they contain their original components; whole-grain products

    Refined: have been taken apart; what, rice, oats, and rye
  11. What are the food functions of Fats?
    • Source of energy
    • Palatability
    • Satiety
    • Food processing
    • Nutrient Source
  12. What are the physiological Functions of Fats?
    • Stored energy
    • Organ Protection
    • Temperature Regulation
    • Insulation
  13. What is a Triglyceride?
    Compound consisting of three fatty acids and one glycerol
  14. What is a Sterol?
    A fatlike class of lipids, serve vital functions in the body
  15. Dietary cholesterol accounts for ___% of the total cholesterol in the body
    Dietary cholesterol accounts for 25% of the total cholesterol in the body
  16. Lecithin is a constituent of ________.
    Lecithin is a constituent of phospholipids.
  17. ______ is a constituent of phospholipids
    Lecithin is a constituent of phospholipids
  18. What is the bodies main phospholipid?
  19. Lipid and Fat digestion occurs in the ______
    Lipid and Fat digestion occurs in the mall intestine
  20. Most fatty acids found naturally in food are cis or trans bonded?
  21. What is the process of hydrogenation?
    Artificial saturation of the fatty acids by adding hydrogen at the double bond; makes fats soluble and more stable
  22. True of False: Saturate Fats may increase risk of coronary heart disease
  23. What are the vitamins/mineral hardest to get when eating out?
    Vitamin A, Vitamin C, and Calcium
  24. Differentiate between: Vegan, Lacto-Vegetarian, Ovo-Lacto-Vegetarian
    Vegan: only plant foods

    Lacto-Vegetarian: Only plants plus dairy

    Ovo-Lacto-Vegetarian: Only plants, dairy, and eggs
  25. What nutrients are missing in a vegetarian diet?
    • Vitamin D
    • Vitamin B12
    • Calcium
    • Omega-3 Fatty Acids
  26. What is Dysphagia?
    Inability to swallow thin liquids
  27. What are the phases of swallowing?
    Phase A: Oral Phase (voluntary); tongue presses food against palate, forcing into pharynx 

    Phase B: Pharyngeal Phase (involuntary); wave of peristalsis forces a bolus between tonsillary pilars

    Phase C: Esophageal Phase (involuntary); relaxation of esophagus allows bolus to move down
  28. What is the Three-Level Dysphagia Diet?
    Phase 1: Pureed - For people with severely reduced oral preparatory stages; foods must be spoon or pudding thick, homogenous textures emphasized

    Phase 2: Mechanically Altered - People who tolerate minimal chewing or moderate impairment; no coarse texture foods, mostly pureed

    Phase 3: Advanced - People who can chew soft textures, mild impairment; Soft texture foods with no tough skin, can have soft/moist meat
  29. Esophagitis is inflammation of the _____
    Esophagitis is inflammation of the lower esophagus 
  30. What are the recommendations for managing a patient with GERD?
    • Avoid lying down post eating
    • Avoid tight clothing
    • Avoid eating "on the run"
    • Avoid certain medications (some may initiate heartburn)
    • Avoid high Fat or Spicy foods
  31. Can infants display GERD?
    Yes; may subside after 6months when transitioning to solid foods
  32. What is Peptic Ulcer Disease
    Term used to describe break or ulceration in the protective mucosal lining of the lower esophagus, stomach, or duodenum
  33. What are the main causes of duodenal ulcers?
    H. pylori infection or use of NSAIDs
  34. What is Triple Therapy?
    • Therapy to combat H. pylori infection
    • Combination of antibiotics and acid-reducing medications taken for ~10-14 days
    • Involves at least 2 antibiotics plus the acid reducers
    • Acid-Reducers relieve pain as well as aid the antibiotics
  35. What is Dumping Syndrome?
    A group of symptoms, including weakness, abdominal discomfort, and sometimes abnormally rapid bowel evacuation occurring after meals in some patients who have undergone gastric surgery.
  36. True or False: Only partial gastrectomy will cause Dumping Syndrome
    False: Both partial and total gastrectomy will cause Dumping Syndrome
  37. What is Celiacs Disease?
    Chronic autoimmune disorder in which the mucosa of the small intestines (duodenum and jujenum especially) are damaged by dietary gluten intake
  38. Milk allergy is caused by _____, while lactose intolerance is caused by ______.
    Milk allergy is caused by an issue with the immune system, while lactose intolerance is caused by enzyme deficiency.
  39. What are sources of High and Low lactose?
    High Lactose Content: Buttermilk, anything with cream, ricotta, yogurt, milk products, cheese

    Low Lactose Content: Aged cheese, butter/margarine, certain breads and drugs, certain processed foods, sherbert, some yogurts
  40. A typical diet will last ____, and a low fat diet will typically last _____.
    A typical diet will last 3 months, and a low fat diet will typically last 6-12 months.