7 Psy 101

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ECCammi
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309844
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7 Psy 101
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2015-10-21 21:28:17
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psychology
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Seventh reading pages 129-156 and lecture
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  1. Donald Deskey recognized the power of perception back in 1946 when he
    Grabbed the attention of customers with an eye catching color on a tide box
  2. Sensation
    Simple stimulation of a sense organ
  3. Perception
    The organization, identification and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation
  4. Transduction
    What takes place when many sensors in the body convert physical signals from the environment into encoded neural signals sent to the central nervous system
  5. What is the sensory input activating vision
    Light reflected from surfaces (for example from a leaf) provides the eyes with information about the shape, color, and positions of objects
  6. What is the sensory input activating audition (hearing)?
    Vibrations cause changes in air pressure that move through space to the listener's ears
  7. What is the sensory input activating touch?
    Pressure of a surface against the skin signals its shape, texture and temperature
  8. What is the sensory input activating taste and smell?
    Molecules dispersed in the air or dissolved in saliva reveal the identity of substances that we may or may not want to eat
  9. What role does the brain play in what we see and hear?
    The brain interprets, organizes and perceives what we see and hear
  10. What is the absolute threshold for vision?
    A candle flame 30 miles away on a clear, dark night
  11. What is the absolute threshold for hearing?
    A clock's tick 20 feet away when all is quiet
  12. What is the absolute threshold of touch?
    A fly's wing falling on the cheek from 1 centimeter away
  13. What is the absolute threshold of smell?
    A single drop of perfume diffused through an area equivalent to the volume of six rooms
  14. What is the absolute threshold for taste?
    A teaspoon of sugar dissolved in two gallons of water
  15. Psychophysics
    Methods that measure the strength of a stimulus and the observer's sensitivity to that stimulus
  16. Absolute threshold
    The minimum intensity needed to just barely detect a stimulus in 50% of the trials
  17. Just noticeable difference (JND)
    The minimal change in a stimulus that can just barely be detected
  18. Weber's law
    The just noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity
  19. Why isn't it enough for a psychophysicist to measure only the strength of a stimulus?
    Because we perceive things differently. What one person sees as a bright light another will see as a dim light
  20. How accurate and complete are our perceptions of the world?
    Our perceptions are not very accurate and complete because the brain has to filter out a lot of noise (other internal and external stimuli)
  21. Signal detection theory
    The response to a stimulus depends both on a person's sensitivity to the stimulus in the presence of noise and on a person's response criterion
  22. Sensory adaptation
    Sensitivity to prolonged stimulation tends to decline over time as an organism adapts to current conditions
  23. Visual acuity
    The ability to see fine detail
  24. Sensation is the
    Simple stimulation of a sense organ, whereas perception organizes, identifies and interprets sensation at the level of the brain
  25. All of our senses depend on the process of transduction, which
    Converts physical signals from the environment into neural signals carried by sensory neurons into the central nervous system
  26. Sensory adoption occurs because
    Sensitivity to lengthy stimulation tends to decline over time
  27. Signal detection theory allows researchers to
    Distinguish between an observer's perceptual sensitive to a stimulus and criteria for making decisions about the stimulus
  28. In the 19th century researchers developed
    Psychphysics, an approach to studying perception that measures the strength of a stimulus and an observer's sensitivity to that stimulus
  29. Psychophysicists have developed procedures for measuring
    An observer's absolute threshold and the just noticeable difference
  30. Retina
    Light sensitive tissue lining the back of the eyeball
  31. Accommodation
    The process by which the eye maintains a clear image on the retina
  32. Cones
    Photoreceptors that detect color, operate under normal daylight conditions and allow us to focus on fine detail
  33. Rods
    Photoreceptors that become active under low-light conditions for night vision
  34. How do eyeglasses actually correct vision?
    They provide an additional lens to help focus light more appropriately.
  35. What are the differences between rods and cones?
    • There's 6 million cones compared to 120 million cones
    • The rods are distributed evenly except in the center, while cones are in the center and sparsely spread throughout the rest of the eye
  36. Fovea
    An area of the retina where vision. Is the clearest and there are no rods at all
  37. Blind spot
    A location in the visual field that produces no sensation on the retina
  38. If rods and cones are functioning then
    You see in color, if just rods you see on a grayscale
  39. Color opponent system
    Pairs of visual neurons that work in opposition
  40. Area V1
    The part of the Occipital lobe that contains the primary visual cortex
  41. What happens when the cones in your eyes get fatigued?
    If you stare at green long enough the green receiving cone will get tired. Staring at a white paper will make it appear red tinted because the still fresh red receptor is so much stronger
  42. What is the relationship between the right and left eyes, and the right and left visual fields?
    Half the axons in the optic nerve that leave each eye come from retinal ganglion cells (RCGs) that code info in the right visual field, whereas the other half code information in the left visual field
  43. Visual form agnosia
    The inability to recognize objects by sight
  44. What are the main jobs of the ventral and dorsal streams?
    • ventral: travel across Occipital lobe into the lower levels of the temporal lobes and includes brain areas that represent an object's shape and identity.
    • Dorsal: Travels up from the Occipital lobe to the parental lobes, connecting with brain areas that identify the location and. Motion of an object
  45. The retina contains several layers and the outermost consists of
    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that collect and send signals to the brain . Bundles of RGCs form the optic nerve
  46. Information encoded by the retina travels to the brain along
    The optic nerve, which connects to the lateral geniculate nucleus in the Thalamus and then to the primary visual cortex, area V1, in the Occipital lobe
  47. Light striking the retina causes a specific pattern of response in each of the three cone types that are critical to color perception:
    • Short wavelength: bluish light
    • Medium wavelength: greenish light
    • Long wavelength: reddish light
    • The overall patter of the response across the three cone types results in a unique code for each color
  48. Light passes through several layers in the eyes to reach the
    Retina
  49. Two types of photoreceptor cells in the retina
    Transduce light into neural impulses: cones and rods
  50. Two functionally distinct pathways project from
    The Occipital lobe to visual areas in other parts of the brain
  51. The ventral stream travels into the
    lower levels of the temporal lobes and includes brain areas that represent an object's shape and identity
  52. The Dorsal stream goes from the
    Occipital lobes to the parental lobes, connecting with brain areas that identify the location and motion of an object
  53. Binding problem
    How features are linked together so that we see unified objects in our visual world rather than free-floating or miscombined features
  54. Illusory conjunction
    A perceptual mistake where features from multiple objects are incorrectly combined
  55. Feature-integration theory
    The idea that focused attention is not required to detect the individual features that comprise a stimulus, but is required to bind those individual features together
  56. How does the study of illusory conjunctions help us understand the role of attention in feature binding?
    Feature integration theory
  57. Perceptual constancy
    A perceptual principle stating that even as aspects of sensory signals change perception remains consistent
  58. How do we recognize our friends, even when they're hidden behind sunglasses?
    The brain responds to the change as a new deviation of a regular thing instead of an entirely foreign object.
  59. Gestalt psychology's perception grouping rules
    • Simplicity
    • Closure
    • Continuity
    • Similarity
    • Proximity
    • Common fate
  60. Perception grouping rule of simplicity
    • The simplest answer is the best one
    • When confronted with 2 or more possible interpretations of an object's shape the visual system tends to select the simplest or most likely interpretation
  61. Perception grouping rule of closure
    We tend to fill in missing elements of a visual scene, allowing us to perceive edges that are separated by gaps as belonging to complete objects
  62. Perception grouping rule of continuity
    Edges or contours that have the same orientation have what the Gestalt psychologists called good continuation, and we tend to group them together perceptually
  63. Perception grouping rule of similarity
    Regions that are similar in color, lightness, shape or texture are perceived as belonging to the same object
  64. Perception grouping rule of proximity
    Objects that are close together tend to be grouped together
  65. Perception grouping rule of common fate
    Elements of a visual image that move together are perceived as parts of a single moving object
  66. Template
    A mental representation that can be directly compared to a viewed shape in the retinal image
  67. Monocular depth cues
    Aspects of a scene that yield information about depth when viewed with only one eye
  68. Types of Monocular depth cue
    • Linear perspective
    • Texture gradient
    • Interposition
    • Relative height
  69. Linear perspective Monocular depth cue
    When parallel lines seem to converge as they recede into the distance
  70. Texture gradient Monocular depth cue
    When you view a more or less uniformly patterned surface because the size of the pattern elements, as well as the distance between them, grows smaller as the surface recedes from the observer
  71. Interpositions Monocular depth cue
    When one object partly blocks another. You can infer that the blocking object is closer than the blocked object. However Interpositions by itself cannot provide info about how far apart the two objects are
  72. Binocular disparity
    The difference in the retinal images of the two eyes that provides information about depth
  73. Apparent motion
    The perception of movement as a result of alternating signals appearing in rapid succession in different location
  74. Change blindness
    When people fail to detect changes to the visual details of a scene
  75. Inattentional blindness
    A failure to perceive objects that are not the focus of attention
  76. How can flashing lights on a casino sign give the impression of movement?
    Apparent motion
  77. How can a failure focused attention explain change blindness?
    Intentional blindness
  78. Image based and parts based theories each
    Explain some, but not all, features of object recognition
  79. We experience a sense of motion through
    The differences in the strengths of output from motion-sensitive neurons. These processes can give rise to illusions such as apparent motion
  80. Depth perception depends on
    • Monocular cues
    • Binocular cues
    • Motion based cues which are based on the movement of the head over time
  81. Change blindness and inattentional blindness occur when we
    Fail to notice visible and even salient features of our environment, emphasizing that our conscious visual experience depends on focused attention
  82. Illusory conjunctions occur when
    Features from separate objects are mistakenly combined
  83. According to feature-integration theory
    • Attention provides the glue necessary to bind features together.
    • The parental lobe is important for attention and contributes to feature binding
  84. Some regions in the Occipital and temporal lobes
    respond selectively to specific object categories, supporting the modular view that specialized brain areas represent particular classes of objects such as faces or houses or body parts
  85. The principle of perceptual constancy holds that
    Even as sensory signals change, perception remains consistent.
  86. Gestalt principles or perceptual grouping
    Govern how the features and regions of things fit together

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