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3 membrane junctions, and their methods of permeability
- 1) Desmosomes: cells don't touch, transmembrane proteins hold cells together (permeable).
- 2) tight: adjacent transmembrane proteins fuse (impermeable).
- 3) Gap: proteins are close, but allow small chemicals to pass through
what's passive transport, and does it require atp?
movement down concentration gradient, filtration & simple diffusion. NO ATP
what's active transport, and does it require ATP
movement against concentration gradient, carrier mediated and vascular transport.
example of active transport and how it works
1 )Sodium potassium (NaK) pump. Na higher outside the cell, K higher inside. Exchange of molecules equalizes the equilibrium of elements.
1) what does hydrostatic pressure mean.
2) give 2 examples
- 1) condition under which fluids are in stable equilibrium.
- 2) ◦nutrients filtered from capillaries into tissue fluids.
- ◦wastes filtered from the blood to kidneys
- 1) ability of solution to affect pressure & volume in a cell.
- 2) cell absorb H2O.
- 3) Cel shrinks and pokes out.
- 4) normal cell/ disk shape
what 5 factors effects diffusion rates through a membrane
- 1) temperature
- 2) pressure (e.g. molecular weight. large=slow).
- 3) steepness of concentration gradient (diff↾ rate↾)
4) membrane surface (rate↥ rate ↥_)
5) membrane permeability (permeability= rate)
what do ribosomes do, and where are they in a cell
protein synthesis from amino acid.
nucleus, cytosol, Rough ER
what does rough ER do, and what makes it rough
synthesis of proteins, phospholipids. Ribosomes make it rough
what does Golgi complex do
- -synthesizes carbs.
- -sorts & packages proteins & glycoproteins.
What does smooth ER do
manufactures cell membranes, steroids, lipids/phospholipids, & are abundent detoxification organs (kidney/liver).
what are centrioles and what do they do
cylindrical microtubules with a role in cell division.
what do cilia do and where are they located
increase cell surface, located anywhere goblet cells are, and move things along mucous membranes.
(goblet cells secrete mucus).
what are microtubules made of
cylindrical chain proteins
1) cytoskeleton is made of___
1) microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate fibers
what do microvilli do for a cell
milking action of actin down into cell, and increase surface area absorption
what causes cystic fibrosis
Cl pump failed to create enough saline under mucus.
What's the largest organelle
1) DNa that carries instructions for one polypeptide chain.
2) DNA to mRNA (RNA polymerase enzyme)
3) mRNA to protein
list steps of DNA protein synthesis
- 1) transcription
- 2) translation
- 3) protein processing and secretion
steps in transcription
-RNA polymerase enzyme opens DNA, reads, and copies a corresponding RNA strand.
steps for transcription
mRNA moves out of nucleus where ribosomes bind to it.
-tRNA's picks up an amino acid corresponding to the next codon the ribosome is reading to create an amino acid chain.
the polypeptide is released when the ribosome reaches the stop codon.