*1-3 lecture

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*1-3 lecture
2015-10-23 23:36:22
*1-3 lecture
*1-3 lecture
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  1. 3 membrane junctions, and their methods of permeability
    • 1) Desmosomes: cells don't touch, transmembrane proteins hold cells together (permeable).
    • 2) tight: adjacent transmembrane proteins fuse (impermeable).
    • 3) Gap: proteins are close, but allow small chemicals to pass through
  2. what's passive transport, and does it require atp?
    movement down concentration gradient, filtration & simple diffusion. NO ATP
  3. what's active transport, and does it require ATP
    movement against concentration gradient, carrier mediated and vascular transport.

    Requires APT
  4. example of active transport and how it works
    1 )Sodium potassium (NaK) pump. Na higher outside the cell, K higher inside. Exchange of molecules equalizes the equilibrium of elements.
  5. 1) what does hydrostatic pressure mean.
    2) give 2 examples
    • 1) condition under which fluids are in stable equilibrium.
    • 2) ◦nutrients filtered from capillaries into tissue fluids.
    • ◦wastes filtered from the blood to kidneys
  6. define
    1) tonicity
    2) hypotonic
    3) hypertonic
    4) Isotonic
    • 1) ability of solution to affect pressure & volume in a cell.
    • 2) cell absorb H2O. 
    • 3) Cel shrinks and pokes out. 
    • 4) normal cell/ disk shape
  7. what 5 factors effects diffusion rates through a membrane
    • 1) temperature
    • 2) pressure (e.g. molecular weight. large=slow).
    • 3) steepness of concentration gradient (diff↾ rate↾)

    4) membrane surface (rate↥ rate ↥_)

    5) membrane permeability (permeability= rate)
  8. what do ribosomes do, and where are they in a cell
    protein synthesis from amino acid.

    nucleus, cytosol, Rough ER
  9. what does rough ER do, and what makes it rough
    synthesis of proteins, phospholipids. Ribosomes make it rough
  10. what does Golgi complex do
    • -synthesizes carbs.
    • -sorts & packages proteins & glycoproteins.
  11. What does smooth ER do
    manufactures cell membranes, steroids, lipids/phospholipids, & are abundent detoxification organs (kidney/liver).
  12. what are centrioles and what do they do
    cylindrical microtubules with a role in cell division.
  13. what do cilia do and where are they located
    increase cell surface, located anywhere goblet cells are, and move things along mucous membranes.

    (goblet cells secrete mucus).
  14. what are microtubules made of
    cylindrical chain proteins
  15. 1) cytoskeleton is made of___
    1) microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate fibers
  16. what do microvilli do for a cell
    milking action of actin down into cell, and increase surface area absorption
  17. what causes cystic fibrosis
    Cl pump failed to create enough saline under mucus.
  18. What's the largest organelle
  19. define
    1) Gene
    2) transcription
    3) translation
    1) DNa that carries instructions for one polypeptide chain.

    2) DNA to mRNA (RNA polymerase enzyme)

    3) mRNA to protein
  20. list steps of DNA protein synthesis
    • 1) transcription
    • 2) translation
    • 3) protein processing and secretion
  21. steps in transcription
    -RNA polymerase enzyme opens DNA, reads, and copies a corresponding RNA strand.
  22. steps for transcription
    • -initiation: 
    • -elongation: 
    • -termination
  23. initiation:
    mRNA moves out of nucleus where ribosomes bind to it.
  24. elongation:
    -tRNA's picks up an amino acid corresponding to the next codon the ribosome is reading to create an amino acid chain.
  25. termination:
    the polypeptide is released when the ribosome reaches the stop codon.