“declamatory style”. Sataro sounds more like regular speech. Pitches may still be sung, but the delivery is more rapid and less lyrical.
The kora player keeps a groove – an ostinato pattern – under the singing most of the time. This is called
But during breaks in the singing, the kora player may perform.These often sound like rapid, cascading flurries of notes.
birimintingo – breaks
are located in West Africa, primarily in the coastal regions of Ghana and Togo.
is an important musical activity among the Ewe, and indeed throughout the West African region.
can be understood simply as dance or movement that is accompanied by percussion music.
Often, there is a __________ between the drumming rhythms and the dance movements for Dance-drumming; that is, the dancers and musicians may influence each other, or may need to react to one another, during the performance.
Among the Ewe, dance-drumming repertoire is preserved and perpetuated by:
• mutual aid societies
• school groups
• professional, state-sponsored troupes
Most music and dance is learned through the process of ________, as opposed toformal lessons
is learning through slow absorption without formal teaching.
The name Agbekor translates to
Agbekor is called
The prefix “atsia” means
War was the original impetus for Agbekor performances. It had two functions in thiscapacity:
1. If performed prior to war, it would fill the hearts of warriors with bravery
2. If performed after battles, it served as a means of communication. Warriors coulddescribe through the music great deeds, or perhaps the details of the death of aleader or chief.
A performance of agbekor typically involves many elements:
• the drumming
• choreography. Agbekor is a strict dance that is rehearsed meticulously untilperfected. Dance movements are reminiscent of war activities.
• singing. Numerous, different songs may be sung during a performance, whichmay last two to three hours.
It is very common for instruments in an Ewe percussion ensemble to correspond to one off our functions. The four functions are:
B. emphasis of the timekeeper
C. supporting drums
D. lead drum
provides the timeline structure for agbekor. The rhythmic patternprovides the unifying structure for all elements of the performance—music, singingand dance. The pattern will cycle continuously, never changing. It cannot change,because it provides the fundamental structure of the music.
Other instruments in the ensemble will sometimes directly emphasize the bell rhythm;also sometimes these instruments will merely assist in the creation of the music-temporal experience (what we might call the ‘groove’).
Emphasis of the timekeeper
typically play an ostinato pattern, but they may have specificvariations that are possible
supporting drums Some comments on these variations:
1) variations are learned or known in advance by the performers
2) they may be used spontaneously, or in response to cues from the lead drum
3) they typically retain the character of the original rhythmic pattern
is the most important drum in the ensemble. Its function is to provideaural cues/signals to the musicians/dancers, leading the performance. In essence, the lead drummer is the leader of the ensemble. Any improvisation in the drummingmusic that occurs is the purview
is evident in Agbekor
occurs when listeners can perceive two,unrelated metric structures in a single piece of music.