Intro NT

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jakestuder68
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309956
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Intro NT
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2015-10-21 12:37:31
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Introducing the New Testament: A Historical, Literary and Theological Survey
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  1. In what year does Pompey conquer Jerusalem for Rome
    63 BCE
  2. Birth of Jesus
    6-4 BCE
  3. Crucifixion of Jesus
    32 - 36 BCE
  4. Jesus born during reign of which emperor?
    Caesar Augustus
  5. Who was the reigning  emperor during Jesus' ministry?
    Tiberius
  6. What year was Saul converted?
    35 AD
  7. Between what years was Paul's missionary journeys, imprisonment & letters written?
    46-65 AD
  8. Between what approx years were Peter & Paul martyred?
    62-65 AD
  9. Approx. when was the gospel of Mark written?
    50s AD
  10. What year was the outbreak of the Jewish war with Rome?
    66 AD
  11. What year was the temple of Jerusalem destroyed?
    70 AD
  12. What year was the fall of Masada (marking the definitive end of the Jewish war)?
    73 AD
  13. Between what years were the other NT books written (Matthew, Luke, John, Acts & "2nd generation" letters by followers of the original apostles)?
    80-100 AD
  14. Jewish rebels who established a Jewish state ruled by the Hasmonean dynasty. Their uprising helped characterize the social and political climate of the New Testament Era.
    Maccabees
  15. Maccabees
    Jewish rebels who established a Jewish state ruled by the Hasmonean dynasty. Their uprising helped characterize the social and political climate of the New Testament Era.
  16. Gentile
    any person or nation from a non-Jewish ethnic origin
  17. any person or nation from a non-Jewish ethnic origin
    Gentile
  18. God-Fearers
    Gentiles who were half-converts, embracing Jewish theology, worship, and morality but who didn’t follow ritual purity laws. Cornelius in Acts 10 is a great example.
  19. Gentiles who were half-converts, embracing Jewish theology, worship, and morality but who didn’t follow ritual purity laws. Cornelius in Acts 10 is a great example.
    God-Fearers
  20. What percentage of the population of the Roman Empire during NT times lived below subsistence level and didn’t know from day to day if they could survive.
    28%
  21. Herodians
    A political party that cooperated with the Pharisees against Jesus. Mark 3:6, 12:13 Matthew 22:16, Mark 8:15, Luke 13:31-32, Acts 4:27.
  22. A political party that cooperated with the Pharisees against Jesus. (Mark 3:6, 12:13 Matthew 22:16, Mark 8:15, Luke 13:31-32, Acts 4:27.)
    Herodians
  23. Zealots
    Zealotry was originally a political movement in 1st century Second Temple Judaism which sought to incite the people of Judaea Province to rebel against the Roman Empire and expel it from the Holy Land by force of arms, most notably during the Great Jewish Revolt (66-70). Zealotry was described by Josephus as one of the "four sects" at this time. Zealots are mentioned in the New Testament and the apostle Simon is thought to have been a former member (Luke 6:15).
  24. Zealotry was originally a political movement in 1st century Second Temple Judaism which sought to incite the people of Judaea Province to rebel against the Roman Empire and expel it from the Holy Land by force of arms, most notably during the Great Jewish Revolt (66-70). Zealotry was described by Josephus as one of the "four sects" at this time. Zealots are mentioned in the New Testament and the apostle Simon is thought to have been a former member (Luke 6:15).
    Zealots
  25. What does the name "Pharisee" in its Hebrew form mean?
    Separatists (or separated or holy ones)
  26. What were 3 things Jesus opposed about the Pharisees?
    • hypocrisy (Matthew 23:29)
    • spiritual blindness (Matthew 23:26)
    • neglect of the more important matters of justice, mercy and faithfulness (Matthew 23:23).
  27. What does “chasidim”, mean?
    loyal to God, or loved of God.
  28. Who were also called "chasidim"?
    Pharisees
  29. What years was the Great Jewish Revolt?
    66-70 AD
  30. The religious responsibilities of this (often politically powerful) group included the maintenance of the Temple in Jerusalem. As Priests they were responsible for performing sacrifices at the Temple.
    Sadducees
  31. What scripture shows the doctrinal disagreement between the Pharisees & the Sadducees?
    Matthew 22:23
  32. Pax Romana
    a time of unprecedented peace across the Mediterranean world attributed to the military and administrative might of the Roman Empire, which allowed the free flow of trade, communication (letters) and travel. This became one of the key factors that led to the explosive expansion of the “new” Christian faith
  33. a time of unprecedented peace across the Mediterranean world attributed to the military and administrative might of the Roman Empire, which allowed the free flow of trade, communication (letters) and travel. This became one of the key factors that led to the explosive expansion of the “new” Christian faith
    Pax Romana
  34. What year did "Levant" appear in English?
    1497
  35. What did the term "Levant" originally mean?
    the East in general or "Mediterranean lands east of Italy"
  36. What does The Levant consist of today?
    • Lebanon
    • Syria
    • Jordan
    • Israel
    • Palestine
    • Cyprus
    • Parts of southern Turkey
    • (Iraq and the Sinai Peninsula are also sometimes included)

    It is a term that is often used in scholarly texts regarding the New Testament geography.
  37. Greek translation of the Jewish bible is called the:
    Septuagint
  38. This phenomenon of cultural and economic influence and struggle in the Levant during the New Testament Era is called
    Hellenism
  39. What is Hellenism
    The phenomenon of cultural and economic influence and struggle in the Levant during the New Testament Era.

    Greek language and culture and the resistance to it influenced almost every aspect of life.
  40. What is Religious syncretism?
    blending of two or more religious belief systems into a new system, or the incorporation into a religious tradition of beliefs from unrelated traditions.
  41. blending of two or more religious belief systems into a new system is called?
    syncretism
  42. Give an example of Hellenism
    The Greek philosophical idea of the immortality of the soul being combined with certain ideas & scriptures influencing the Jewish belief of the after-life.
  43. What years and by whom did "Epicureanism" originate?
    Epicurus (340-270 BCE)
  44. Allows for free will and allows for questioning the role of fate/role of the gods to determine human lives.
    Epicureanism
  45. What is Epicureanism?
    • Pleasure is the ultimate goal of life but not simple, base pleasures but rather ones that lead toward attainment of tranquility and away from anxiety. Those adopting this philosophy avoid those things in life that cause disappointment, pain and grief (romantic love, political commitments, devotion to material things).
    • Allows for free will, questioning the role of fate (or of the gods) to determine lives
    • Those seeking true pleasure exercise their free will to enjoy good things in moderation and make responsible choices that improve their lives and the lives of others
    • Reject any ideas of the afterlife (what meaning life has can only be found in the here and now)
    • freedom from accountability, a "license for self-indulgence"
  46. In what years and by whom did "Stoicism" originate? Also who was it influenced by & in which century?
    Zeno (333-264 BCE), influenced by Epictetus in 1st century CE.
  47. What is "Stoicism?"
    Everything is predetermined and history is cyclical (occurring in cycles) and repetitious.  By acceptance of fate one can become virtuous, the highest goal of a stoic--and one can become indifferent to circumstances, avoiding all extremes.
  48. In what years & by whom did "Cynicism" originate?
    Diogenes of Sinope (410-324 BCE).
  49. Describe "Cynicism"
    Radical authenticity and independence is manifested in this person’s lifestyle more than dogma. Voluntary poverty, desire for only what is natural and necessity and rejecting anything that cannot be obtained freely--all were thought to lead to an independence from desire.
  50. Diaspora
    the spread of the Jews beyond their traditional homeland of Palestine. Diaspora Jews who grew up far from Jerusalem and the temple sacrificial system focused more on the Torah and looked more to the synagogue as the center of their faith experience.
  51. the spread of the Jews beyond their traditional homeland of Palestine.
    Diaspora
  52. Diaspora Jews who grew up far from Jerusalem and the temple sacrificial system focused more on 2 things:
    • the Torah
    • Looked more to the synagogue as the center of their faith experience.
  53. Septuagint
    Greek translation of the Jewish Bible. This was the version of the OT Scriptures accessible to the first century Christianity.
  54. What did the Septuagint's Roman numeral acronym "LXX" refer to?
    the seventy finest Jewish scholars that completed the translation.
  55. When was the Septuagint written?
    as early as the late 2nd century BCE.
  56. What 3 things did the Pax Romana allow?
    • the free flow of trade
    • communication (letters)
    • travel
  57. What became one of the key factors that led to the explosive expansion of the “new” Christian faith?
    The Pax Romana
  58. Name 3 examples of syncretism:
    • Wisdom Theology
    • Dualism
    • Apocalypticism
  59. The Second Temple Judaism Period are during what years?
    515 BCE - 70 CE
  60. Into what 3 historical periods can the 2nd Temple Period be broken down into? (Include the years of each)
    • The Persian Period (ca. 537-332 BCE)
    • The Hellenistic Period (ca.332-167 BCE)
    • The Roman Period (63 BCE-70 CE)
  61. Describe the Persian Period
    • ca. 537-332 BCE
    • emergence of synagogues and “faithfulness to the Torah” becomes the hallmark of Jewish religion
  62. Describe the Hellenistic Period
    • ca.332-167 BCE
    • Palestine comes under control of the Greeks (Alexander the Great), Ptolemies in Egypt, then Seleucids in Syria.
    • Re-dedication of the temple during this time period was commemorated by the Jewish festival of Hanukkah.
  63. Antiochus IV Epiphanes
    Infamous persecutor of Jews and their religion, defiled the temple, and tried to force Greek philosophy and culture onto them, inciting the Maccabees (“hammers”) to revolt and establish an independent Jewish state ruled by the Hasmonean dynasty.
  64. Hanukkah
    Re-dedication of the temple during the Hellenistic time period was commemorated by this Jewish festival.
  65. Describe the Roman Period
    • 63 BCE-70 CE
    • Roman general Pompey annexed Palestine w/o much struggle in 63 BCE
  66. Name 4 socio-cultural values that can be viewed as “unwritten social codes for the 1st century NT world:
    • Wealth & Poverty
    • Purity & Defilement
    • Patronage & Loyalty
    • Honor & Shame
  67. Describe Wealth & Poverty
    • grotesque economic inequality - 90% extremely poor, 3% extremely rich (almost no middle class)
    • modern estimates suggest that about 28% of the population of the Roman Empire during NT times lived at or below subsistence level, meaning from day to day it was uncertain whether they would be able to obtain the basic necessities to sustain life.
    • in contrast to modern capitalism, the prevailing thought about wealth/resources was that some people had less than they needed because other people had more than they needed.
  68. Describe Purity & Defilement
    • overall sense of what is clean or unclean by societal norms; the Jewish people were obviously affected by biblical commandments guiding purification and holiness rituals.
    • Jews were not overly paranoid or ashamed when they became unclean due to encountering uncleanness. “They simply avoided what was avoidable, noted what was not, and performed purification rites as part of their regular spiritual discipline.”
  69. Describe Honor & Shame
    The pivotal social value in the NT world common among Greeks, Romans, Jews and everyone else was honor--your status in the eyes of those whose opinions you consider to be significant. In the New Testament this value is sometimes accessed as a good metaphor for how to please God and in some cases, as a way to see how empty life really is when you are chasing after this kind of worldly value. What is honorable to God is not always what will be held in high regard by people.
  70. Describe Patronage & Loyalty
    • Roman society functioned with strong expectations regarding “give and take”--that the exchange of favors was practically definitive of friendship; mutual assistance and support over the long term was the fabric of healthy inter-relationships.
    • Though few had wealth or power, those that did were expected to serve as benefactors (patrons) to those who did not--then the recipients (clients) would be expected to give what they could: gratitude, and above all, loyalty which would include praising the benefactor and enhancing their social reputation.
    • Patron-client relationships would form the backdrop for the development and even mis-interpretation of theological concepts such as grace or “charis” in the Greek. The term often used for the client’s expected attitude of loyalty toward his or her patron is pistis (Greek translated in English to mean “faith”).  “This the phenomenon of patron-client relationships seems to have served as a rough analogy for divine-human encounters in which the constitutive elements are grace and faith: God gives to people freely and generously (grace), and this arouses within people an appropriate response of trust, devotion, and willingness to serve (faith).” (Powell, p.44)
  71. List the 3 Major Philosophical schools:
    • Epicureanism
    • Stoicism
    • Cynicism
  72. How many books are in the NT?
    27
  73. What is the LONGEST & the SHORTEST NT books?
    • Luke
    • 3 John
  74. What are the 7 categories of the NT?
    • The Gospels (4)
    • The Book of Acts
    • Letters from Paul to the Churches (9)
    • Letters from Paul to Individuals (4)
    • The letter to the Hebrews.
    • Letters by other people (7)
    • The Book of Revelation
  75. Why does the book of Acts have it's own category?
    Because it’s the only book that focuses on the history of the church and the events that happened after the events reported in the gospels.
  76. What are the 9 letters from Paul to the churches?
    • Romans,
    • 1&2 Corinthians
    • Galatians
    • Ephesians
    • Philippians
    • Colossians
    • 1&2 Thessalonians
  77. How are the NT letters presented?
    They are presented in the NT in order of length: from longest to shortest.
  78. What are the 4 letters from Paul to individuals?
    • 1&2 Timothy
    • Titus
    • Philemon
  79. Who was the audience of the book of Hebrews?
    Jewish Christians
  80. What is the name of the group of epistles NOT written by Paul?
    • “General Epistles” or the “Catholic (universal) Epistles
    • James, 1&2 Peter, 1-3 John, Jude
  81. What is a Covenant?
    A promise between two or more parties with a mediator who documents violations and upholds the requirements of the agreement.
  82. What is a Testament?
    Denotes a fictitious but pious record of the dying words of a famous leader and is usually a written account of a covenant between God and His people
  83. How does a Covenant differ from a simple contract?
    In that when it is violated it is not canceled. Rather there are punishments and rewards prescribed for infringing on or honoring the covenant; however, the covenant stays in force until it is fulfilled. In the OT the Prophets had this mediation role. They documented, warned, and encouraged compliance to Covenant between God and His people.
  84. Which scriptures speak of a New Covenant is coming/has come?
    • Jeremiah 31:29–31
    • Hebrews 8:7-13
  85. What does the word "canon" mean?
    literally “rule” or “standard” . . . a list of books that are officially accepted as scripture.
  86. When is it estimated the NT canon was complete and accepted?
    conservative estimates place the 27-book NT canon to be complete, as late as the beginning of the 5th century. as early as the early part of the 2nd century
  87. Who objected to certain books not being accepted as NT canon?
    heretical, gnostic ideas influenced Marcion and others to object to certain books
  88. What is the apocrypha?
    15 additional books of disputed canonical status (found in the Greek version of the OT (Septuagint) and are never cited as Scripture in the New Testament
  89. What is another name for the Apocrypha?
    Deuterocanonical writings
  90. Historical Criticism
    umbrella term used for those approaches in NT studies that focus on the circumstances of a text’s composition
  91. Exegesis
    the scholarly study of the Bible with an emphasis on the actual explication of texts
  92. What are the 6 stages in the transmission of the Gospel?
    • 1) Jesus says and does remarkable things
    • 2) Early tradition (ORAL/WRITTEN)
    • 3) Composition of the Gospels
    • 4) Preservation of Manuscripts
    • 5) Translation
    • 6) Reception
  93. Hermeneutics
    Refers more generally to the philosophical reflection on the process of interpretation how the biblical passages might be regarded as meaningful
  94. Griesbach Hypothesis
    Matthew written first, Luke used Matthew, and Mark used both Matthew and Luke
  95. Diatessaron
    Tatian’s solution to the confusion of having 4 different accounts of Jesus’ life: a synthesis of the four Gospels that combined their accounts into one extended narrative of Jesus’ life.
  96. “Q”
    Is likely short for Quelle, German for “source” - an early written or memorized collection of Jesus’ sayings that scholars who ascribe to the “Two-Source Hypothesis” believe was available to the authors of Matthew and Luke, in addition to the Gospel of Mark that is material found in both Matthew and Luke’s gospels.  In this theory Matthew had an additional source called “M” and Luke had an additional source called “L” that was different from Matthew’s “M”.
  97. The Two-Gospel Hypothesis
    doesn’t allow for a “Q” source, but rather depicts Matthew as the first gospel written that influences Luke’s account, that in turn allows for Mark to pull from both Matthew and Luke and form a “condensed version” gospel now called Mark

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