Chapter 6 (Test 3) (Stdy more on Solubility and Ask 'bout it)

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Chapter 6 (Test 3) (Stdy more on Solubility and Ask 'bout it)
2015-10-21 04:44:45
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  1. 1 atm
    • 760 torr or mm of Hg
    • 14.7 PSI
  2. Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)
    0°C and 1 atm
  3. Henry's Law
    • Solubility of a Gas and Pressure
    • The solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to the pressure of the gas over the liquid
    • ↑ in pressure is ↑ in solubility of a gas
  4. Gay-Lussac's Law
    • Pressure and Temperature
    • For a sample of gas with a constant volume, pressure and temperature are directly related
    • ↓ Temp will ↓ Pressure
    • P1/T1 = P2/T2

    MAKE SURE TO CONVERT TO K (C° + 273.15)
  5. Boyle's Law
    • Volume of a Gas and Pressure
    • Gas is proportional to the Pressure when temp remains constant
    • ↑ V of Gas as ↓ in Pressure
    • P1V1 = P2Vwhen T1 = T2
  6. Charles Law
    • Temp and Volume
    • ↑ in Temp will ↑ Volume
    • V1/T1 = V2/Twhen P1 = P2

    • MAKE SURE TO CONVERT TO K (C° + 273.15)
  7. Combine Gas Law
    P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2

    • MAKE SURE TO CONVERT TO K (C° + 273.15)
  8. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure
    • The total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressure of its components
    • Partial pressure of gas in a mixture is the pressure that gas would exert alone
    • Mixture of Air (N2 = 78.0%, O2 = 21.1% and 0.9% other)
    • Sea lvl: P1 = 760 Torr = PN2 + PO2 + POther
    • Sea lvl: 593 Torr + 160 Torr + 7 Torr = 760 Torr

    • Mt. Everest: P1 = 200 = PN2 + PO2 + POther
    • Mt. Everest: 156 Torr + 42 Torr + 2 Torr = 200 Torr
  9. Why do long distant runners train at high altitude?
    So their bodies can produce more hemoglobin
  10. Why do climbers bring O equipment?
    Because of he lower pressure, there is less O so equipment must be brought
  11. Mixture
    A combination of 2 or more pure substances
  12. Heterogenous
    Mixture - not evenly distributed
  13. Homogeneous
    Mixtures - uniformly distributed
  14. Solvent
    • The component in solution present in greatest amount
    • Usually Water
  15. Solutes
    • The component dissolved in solution
    • Potassium, NaCl, etc in blood
  16. The formation of solutions, requires that solute particles have what two important characteristics?
    • They must be about the same size as the solvent molecules 
    • They must be able to interact with the solvent molecules through non-covalent interactions
    • "Like Dissolves Like"
  17. Solubility
    • The amount of solute that will dissolve in a give amount of solvent at a given temp
    • How temp affects?
  18. Electrolytes
    Compounds that dissolve in water to form ions
  19. Pure Substance
    • Consists of just one element of compound
    • (e.g. Element: Hg, Ag, O | Compound: Water, NaCl, Sucrose)
  20. Hydrophilic
    • Compounds that are soluble in water
    • Simple sugars and all AA
  21. Hydrophobic
    • Compounds that are insoluble in water
    • Fatty Acids
  22. Amphipathic
    • Compounds that have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts.
    • Soap and Shampoo
  23. Prodrugs
    Inactive compounds that are converted to fully active drugs in the body
  24. Concentration
    • Amount of Solute dissolved in Solvent
    • %(w/v)  (g/L)
  25. Molarity/Concentration/ppt,ppm,ppb/ Dilution
    Look in binder for practice
  26. Diffusion
    Substances (Solutes) that move from areas of higher concentration to those of lower concentration
  27. Osmosis
    Movement of water (Solvent) across a membrane from a solution of lower solute concentration to one of high solute concentration
  28. Semipermeable Membrane
    Barriers to diffusion because they allow solvents, but not all solutes to pass through
  29. Isotonic Solution
    • Equal Concentrations
    • Flow of water in and out is equal
    • 0.95% Saline Solution
    • 5.5% Glucose Solution
  30. Hypotonic Solution
    • Less Concentrated
    • Water will flow out of this solution
    • Cause Hemolysis to RBC
    • 0.8% Saline Solution
    • 4.0% Glucose Solution
  31. Hypertonic Solution
    • More Concentrated
    • Water will flow into this solution
    • Cause Crenation to RBC
    • 5% Saline Solution
    • 10% Glucose Solution
  32. Hemodialysis
    • Is used to cleanse the blood of patients whose kidneys malfunction. Blood is diverted from the body and pumped through a long cellophane dialysis tube suspended in an isotonic solution formulated to contain many of the same components as blood plasma.
    • Small waste materials such as urea pass through the dialysis  membrane from the blood to the solution side where they are washed away
  33. Why can't some solutes such as protein's cannot move out or into cells?
  34. Reverse Osmosis - Desalination of Sea Water
    Sea water has a higher concentration of solutes (Na+, Cl-, and others) than fresh water. If these two solutions are separated by a semipermeable membrane, osmosis will move water from the fresh side to the sea water side.
  35. Osmotic Pressure
    The amount of external pressure applied to the more concentrated solution to halt the passage of solvent molecule across a semipermeable membrane.