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- 760 torr or mm of Hg
- 14.7 PSI
Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)
0°C and 1 atm
- Solubility of a Gas and Pressure
- The solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to the pressure of the gas over the liquid
- ↑ in pressure is ↑ in solubility of a gas
- Pressure and Temperature
- For a sample of gas with a constant volume, pressure and temperature are directly related
- ↓ Temp will ↓ Pressure
- P1/T1 = P2/T2
MAKE SURE TO CONVERT TO K (C° + 273.15)
- Volume of a Gas and Pressure
- Gas is proportional to the Pressure when temp remains constant
- ↑ V of Gas as ↓ in Pressure
- P1V1 = P2V2 when T1 = T2
- Temp and Volume
- ↑ in Temp will ↑ Volume
- V1/T1 = V2/T2 when P1 = P2
- MAKE SURE TO CONVERT TO K (C° + 273.15)
Combine Gas Law
- MAKE SURE TO CONVERT TO K (C° + 273.15)
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure
- The total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressure of its components
- Partial pressure of gas in a mixture is the pressure that gas would exert alone
- Mixture of Air (N2 = 78.0%, O2 = 21.1% and 0.9% other)
- Sea lvl: P1 = 760 Torr = PN2 + PO2 + POther
- Sea lvl: 593 Torr + 160 Torr + 7 Torr = 760 Torr
- Mt. Everest: P1 = 200 = PN2 + PO2 + POther
- Mt. Everest: 156 Torr + 42 Torr + 2 Torr = 200 Torr
Why do long distant runners train at high altitude?
So their bodies can produce more hemoglobin
Why do climbers bring O equipment?
Because of he lower pressure, there is less O so equipment must be brought
A combination of 2 or more pure substances
Mixture - not evenly distributed
Mixtures - uniformly distributed
- The component in solution present in greatest amount
- Usually Water
- The component dissolved in solution
- Potassium, NaCl, etc in blood
The formation of solutions, requires that solute particles have what two important characteristics?
- They must be about the same size as the solvent molecules
- They must be able to interact with the solvent molecules through non-covalent interactions
- "Like Dissolves Like"
- The amount of solute that will dissolve in a give amount of solvent at a given temp
- How temp affects?
Compounds that dissolve in water to form ions
- Consists of just one element of compound
- (e.g. Element: Hg, Ag, O | Compound: Water, NaCl, Sucrose)
- Compounds that are soluble in water
- Simple sugars and all AA
- Compounds that are insoluble in water
- Fatty Acids
- Compounds that have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts.
- Soap and Shampoo
Inactive compounds that are converted to fully active drugs in the body
- Amount of Solute dissolved in Solvent
- %(w/v) (g/L)
Look in binder for practice
Substances (Solutes) that move from areas of higher concentration to those of lower concentration
Movement of water (Solvent) across a membrane from a solution of lower solute concentration to one of high solute concentration
Barriers to diffusion because they allow solvents, but not all solutes to pass through
- Equal Concentrations
- Flow of water in and out is equal
- 0.95% Saline Solution
- 5.5% Glucose Solution
- Less Concentrated
- Water will flow out of this solution
- Cause Hemolysis to RBC
- 0.8% Saline Solution
- 4.0% Glucose Solution
- More Concentrated
- Water will flow into this solution
- Cause Crenation to RBC
- 5% Saline Solution
- 10% Glucose Solution
- Is used to cleanse the blood of patients whose kidneys malfunction. Blood is diverted from the body and pumped through a long cellophane dialysis tube suspended in an isotonic solution formulated to contain many of the same components as blood plasma.
- Small waste materials such as urea pass through the dialysis membrane from the blood to the solution side where they are washed away
Why can't some solutes such as protein's cannot move out or into cells?
Reverse Osmosis - Desalination of Sea Water
Sea water has a higher concentration of solutes (Na+, Cl-, and others) than fresh water. If these two solutions are separated by a semipermeable membrane, osmosis will move water from the fresh side to the sea water side.
The amount of external pressure applied to the more concentrated solution to halt the passage of solvent molecule across a semipermeable membrane.