6th Science Chapter 1

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6th Science Chapter 1
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2010-09-07 20:57:32
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6th Grade Science Chapter 1
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  1. cell membrane
    The structure that surrounds and encloses a cell and controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell.
  2. cell theory
    A theory that states that cells are the basic units of structure and function of all living things.
  3. cell respiration
    The process in cells in which oxygen is used to release stored energy by breaking down sugar molecules.
  4. chloroplast
    A tiny green organelle that contains chlorophyll and is found in plant cells and some protist cells.
  5. chromosome
    A threadlike structure in the nucleus of a cell; it carries the genes that determine the traits an offspring inherits from its parent or parents.
  6. cytoplasm
    The watery gel inside a cell.
  7. fermentation
    A chemical change in which an organism breaks down sugar to produce carbon dioxide and alcohol or lactic acid.
  8. mitochondria
    Cell organelles in which energy is released from food.
  9. cell differentiation
    The development of cells into different and specialized cell types.
  10. nuclear membrane
    The structure that surrounds and encloses the nucleus and controls what substances move into and out of the nucleus.
  11. organ system
    A group of organs that work together to perform one or more functions.
  12. photosynthesis
    The process by which green plants and other producers use light energy to make food.
  13. tissues
    A group of similar, specialized cells working together to carry out the same function.
  14. cell
    The basic unit that makes up all living things.
  15. cell wall
    The rigid structure surrounding the cells of plants, monerans, and some protists.
  16. diffusion
    The tendency of substances to move from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration.
  17. mitosis
    The process in which one cell divides to form two identical new cells.
  18. nucleus
    The control center of a cell.
  19. organ
    A part of an multicellular organism made up of a group of tissues that work together to perform a certain function.
  20. osmosis
    The diffusion of water through a membrane.
  21. vacuoles
    A structure in the cytoplasm in which food and other substances are stored.
  22. What makes a plant cell different from an animal cell?
    A plant cell has all the parts of a cell and animal cell doesn't have cell walls or chloroplasts.
  23. What instrument did scientists create to allow them to see a single cell?
    microscope
  24. What would be a good example of diffusion?
    osmosis
  25. What would be a good example of osmosis?
  26. What equation is used for photosynthesis?
    Carbon dioxide + water with light makes sugar + oxygen
  27. What equation is used for cell respiration?
    Sugar + oxygen makes carbon dioxide + water + energy
  28. How are the two equations for photosynthesis and cell respiration related?
    They both produce energy
  29. Explain how fermentation works?
    Instead of using oxygen, some cells use sugar
  30. What happens in each stage of mitosis?
    • Stage 1 = Chromosomes aren't visible. Each chromosome makes a copy of itself.
    • Stage 2 = Chromosomes become shorter, thicker and visible. Chromosome copies fasten together. Long fibers attach to the chromosomes. The nuclear membrane disintegrates.
    • Stage 3 = Doubled chromosomes line up along the cell center.
    • Stage 4 = The doubled chromosomes are pulled to opposite ends of the cell.
    • Stage 5 = Chromosomes become hard to see. The cell splits and new nuclear membranes form.
  31. How does the process of mitosis apply to real life?
    Mitosis is helpful because it creates all the cells in our body that we need.
  32. What is the importance of cell differentiation?
    If there was only type of cell, then there wouldn't be plants, animals, and humans because everything would be the same.
  33. Why are tissues important for our body?
    Tissues protect your insides. Tissues are your skin. They also can help you move. Carries information to different parts of your body.
  34. Give an example of an organ working in an organ system.
    In the digestive system there is a stomach.

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