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What needs does communication fulfill?
- 1. physical
- 2. instrumental
- 3. relational
- 4. identity
- 5. spiritual
The 3 models of communication are...? (which one is the most comprehensive?)
- 1. the action model
- 2. the interaction model
- 3. the transaction model
transaction is most comprehensive
The misconceptions about communication are...?
- 1. everyone is an adept communicator
- 2. communication can solve any problem
- 3. there is only one type of communication
- 4. any communication is good communication
- 5. more communication will ultimately make people agree with you
The characteristics of competent communicators are...?
- 1. self-awareness
- 2. responsiveness and adaptability
- 3. person-centered messages
- 4. cognitive complexity
- 5. ethics and civility
the ability to understand and feel the same way as another person
Define cognitive complexity
the ability to recognize multiple potential ways in which a situation or message could be understood or interpreted
the process of being attuned to how your actions and messages impact others
What are Hofstede's 6 dimensions of cultures
- 1. high vs. low power distance
- 2. high vs. low uncertainty avoidance
- 3. individualism vs. collectivism
- 4. masculinity vs. femininity
- 5. long-term vs. short-term orientation
- 6. indulgence vs. restraint
Is Argentina collectivist or individualist?
Is Sweden high or low uncertainty avoidance?
high uncertainty avoidance
the distinctive ideas, customs, social behavior, products, or way of life of a particular nation, society, or period
a set of physical characteristic shared by a group of people, such as skin color, body type, facial structure, and hair color
a group of people who identify with each other based on a common experience, which might be includ geographic or national origin, ancestry, history, cultural and social norms, religion, race, language, ideology, food, dress, or other factors
one's biological classification based on reproductive function
a social construction that includes the all of the beliefs, attitudes, actions and roles associated with being masculine or feminine
Define sexual orientaion
the sex and gender to whom a person is romantically and sexually attracted
What are the 3 stages of the perception process?
- 1. selection
- 2. organization
- 3. interpretation
What influences perception?
Perception is influenced by physiological states and traits, culture, occupation, and psychological biases.
What is self-concept?
Our self-concept is the image we have about who we believe we are. Our self-concept is shaped through our interactions with others, is multifaceted, is subjective, and will both endure and change over time
the process of giving meaning to the things we notice in the world around us.
the act of choosing to attend to, consciously or subconsciously, specific stimuli in the environment
the categorization of stimuli we select to pay attention to
generalizations about groups of people that are applied to individuals we believe are members of that group
Define primacy effect
people are prone to emphasizing the first impression of something over any subsequent impressions when forming their perception of an event or person
Define recency effect
people are prone to using their most recent experience with someone as their overriding impression of the person
define positivity bias
the tendency to highlight and overemphasize positive information and characteristics when creating an impression
define negativity bias
the tendency to focus our efforts on picking out negative information or qualities in a person or sitiuation
define image management
the process of coordination the presentation of our self-concept with various groups in different situations
How is language arbitrary, ambiguous and negative?
Arbitrary: term that describes symbols themselves as having no direct connection with the things they represent (i.e. Selfie)
Ambiguous: term that describes words as being without absolute meaning (i.e. peace sign and word Wicked mean completely different things in different contexts)
Negative: the idea that language separates things from their natural state, thus telling us not only what something is, but what it is not (i.e. what is and what is not. Bad b/c defines what something can be/cannot be)
What are the 6 nonverbal functions of communication and the definition of each?
- 1. repeating: the function of nonverbal communication whereby the physical actions that follow verbal messages reinforce what is said
- 2. accenting: the function of nonverbal communication whereby nonverbal behaviors argument a message while it is delivered
- 3. complementing: the function of nonverbal communication whereby nonverbal behavior occurring at the same time as the message displays the same content
- 4. substituting: the function of nonverbal communication whereby physical actions take the place of verbal messages
- 5. regulating: the actions that govern the course of an interaction with another person
- 6. conflicting: *no definition in book* pg.76
What are the 8 types of nonverbal communication and their definitions?
- 1. kinesics: the study of the way in which certain body movements and gestures serve as a form of nonverbal communication
- 2. oculesics: the use of eye contact to send messages
- 3. proxemics: how we use space to convey information
- 4. haptics: the study of how touch expresses meaning
- 5. chronemics: the branch of nonverbal communication that involves how people treat, value, react and structure time
- 6. olfactics: the dimension of nonverbal communication related to smell
- 7. vocalics: those things that contribute to the maintenance or creation of sound in your voice that help to convey meaning
- 8. artifacts: Artifacts are objects often used to communicate information about oneself. Artifacts include clothes, jewelry, trinkets , accessories like handbags, umbrellas, fans, hats, and colors, to express one’s interests, hobbies, status, or lifestyle. With artifacts, one can be distinguished from others demonstrating his or her own taste of life and philosophy. However, different cultures have different interpretations of these artifacts.
What are the 6 guidelines for developing good listening skills?
- 1. advising: giving specific advice
- 2. analyzing: an interpretation of the speaker's thoughts
- 3. paraphrasing: restating a speaker's ideas
- 4. questioning: asking questions concerning the subject
- 5. reflecting: paraphrasing a speaker's thoughts and feelings
- 6. supporting: reassuring or comforting a speaker
What is the uncertainty reduction theory?
Uncertainty reduction theory states we are uncomfortable with uncertainty and interpersonal relationships, so we use passive, active, and interactive strategies to reduce uncertainty. There are three stages that we go through as we reduce uncertainty: 1. the entry stage, 2. the personal stage, and 3. the exit stage
What is the social penetration theory?
Social penetration theory proposes that we create and maintain deeper intimacy with another person through mutual self-disclosure. The five stages of social penetration theory are 1. orientation, 2. exploratory effective exchange, 3. affective exchange, 4. stable exchange, and 5 depenetration
What is Knapp's stage model of rational development? Together and apart?
Together: initiating, experimenting, intensifying, integrating, bonding
Apart: differentiating, circumscribing, stagnating, avoiding, terminating
define initiating stage
Initiating stage: when you take the first step to interact with someone you are interested in
Define Experimenting stage
Experimenting stage: where you engage in conversation about surface level interest and topics with the other person to see if your interest is expanded or not
define Intensifying stage
Intensifying stage: you invest more time in each other, learn more about a person's history, interests, and goals
define Integrating stage
Integrating stage: partners begin to develop a sense of an identity for the relationship with each other
define Bonding stage
Bonding stage: partners make their deep commitment formal and public through an engagement, marriage, or civil union
define Differentiating stage
Differentiating stage: occurs when the partners begin to separate themselves from each other
define Circumscribing stage
Circumscribing stage: happens when the partners are primarily living different lives in their conversations are increasingly limited in scope and depth
define Stagnation stage
Stagnation stage: when couples move into the stagnation stage, they are still a couple, but primarily a name. They are neither moving forward or backward in the relationship but have hit a point when they are not relating on an intimate level
define Avoidance stage
Avoidance stage: the couple actively avoid interacting with each other so they will not have to face each other
define Terminating stage
Terminating stage: the final phase of relationship deterioration. Couples and their current relationships and move into a post relationship phrase where they may or may not continue to have contact as separated individuals