COM 113 Exam 1

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  1. What needs does communication fulfill?
    • 1. physical
    • 2. instrumental
    • 3. relational
    • 4. identity
    • 5. spiritual
  2. The 3 models of communication are...? (which one is the most comprehensive?)
    • 1. the action model
    • 2. the interaction model
    • 3. the transaction model

    transaction is most comprehensive
  3. The misconceptions about communication are...?
    • 1. everyone is an adept communicator
    • 2. communication can solve any problem
    • 3. there is only one type of communication
    • 4. any communication is good communication
    • 5. more communication will ultimately make people agree with you
  4. The characteristics of competent communicators are...?
    • 1. self-awareness
    • 2. responsiveness and adaptability
    • 3. person-centered messages
    • 4. cognitive complexity
    • 5. ethics and civility
  5. Define Empathy
    the ability to understand and feel the same way as another person
  6. Define cognitive complexity
    the ability to recognize multiple potential ways in which a situation or message could be understood or interpreted
  7. Define self-monitoring
    the process of being attuned to how your actions and messages impact others
  8. What are Hofstede's 6 dimensions of cultures
    • 1. high vs. low power distance
    • 2. high vs. low uncertainty avoidance
    • 3. individualism vs. collectivism
    • 4. masculinity vs. femininity
    • 5. long-term vs. short-term orientation
    • 6. indulgence vs. restraint
  9. Is Argentina collectivist or individualist?
  10. Is Sweden high or low uncertainty avoidance?
    high uncertainty avoidance
  11. Define culture
    the distinctive ideas, customs, social behavior, products, or way of life of a particular nation, society, or period
  12. Define race
    a set of physical characteristic shared by a group of people, such as skin color, body type, facial structure, and hair color
  13. Define ethnicity
    a group of people who identify with each other based on a common experience, which might be includ geographic or national origin, ancestry, history, cultural and social norms, religion, race, language, ideology, food, dress, or other factors
  14. Define sex
    one's biological classification based on reproductive function
  15. Define gender
    a social construction that includes the all of the beliefs, attitudes, actions and roles associated with being masculine or feminine
  16. Define sexual orientaion
    the sex and gender to whom a person is romantically and sexually attracted
  17. What are the 3 stages of the perception process?
    • 1. selection
    • 2. organization
    • 3. interpretation
  18. What influences perception?
    Perception is influenced by physiological states and traits, culture, occupation, and psychological biases.
  19. What is self-concept?
    Our self-concept is the image we have about who we believe we are.  Our self-concept is shaped through our interactions with others, is multifaceted, is subjective, and will both endure and change over time
  20. Define perception
    the process of giving meaning to the things we notice in the world around us.
  21. Define selection
    the act of choosing to attend to, consciously or subconsciously, specific stimuli in the environment
  22. Define organization
    the categorization of stimuli we select to pay attention to
  23. Define stereotyping
    generalizations about groups of people that are applied to individuals we believe are members of that group
  24. Define primacy effect
    people are prone to emphasizing the first impression of something over any subsequent impressions when forming their perception of an event or person
  25. Define recency effect
    people are prone to using their most recent experience with someone as their overriding impression of the person
  26. define positivity bias
    the tendency to highlight and overemphasize positive information and characteristics when creating an impression
  27. define negativity bias
    the tendency to focus our efforts on picking out negative information or qualities in a person or sitiuation
  28. define image management
    the process of coordination the presentation of our self-concept with various groups in different situations
  29. How is language arbitrary, ambiguous and negative?
    Arbitrary: term that describes symbols themselves as having no direct connection with the things they represent (i.e. Selfie)

    Ambiguous: term that describes words as being without absolute meaning (i.e. peace sign and word Wicked mean completely different things in different contexts)

    Negative: the idea that language separates things from their natural state, thus telling us not only what something is, but what it is not (i.e. what is and what is not. Bad b/c defines what something can be/cannot be)
  30. What are the 6 nonverbal functions of communication and the definition of each?
    • 1. repeating: the function of nonverbal communication whereby the physical actions that follow verbal messages reinforce what is said 
    • 2. accenting: the function of nonverbal communication whereby nonverbal behaviors argument a message while it is delivered
    • 3. complementing: the function of nonverbal communication whereby nonverbal behavior occurring at the same time as the message displays the same content
    • 4. substituting: the function of nonverbal communication whereby physical actions take the place of verbal messages
    • 5. regulating: the actions that govern the course of an interaction with another person
    • 6. conflicting: *no definition in book* pg.76
  31. What are the 8 types of nonverbal communication and their definitions?
    • 1. kinesics: the study of the way in which certain body movements and gestures serve as a form of nonverbal communication
    • 2. oculesics: the use of eye contact to send messages
    • 3. proxemics: how we use space to convey information
    • 4. haptics: the study of how touch expresses meaning
    • 5. chronemics: the branch of nonverbal communication that involves how people treat, value, react and structure time
    • 6. olfactics: the dimension of nonverbal communication related to smell
    • 7. vocalics: those things that contribute to the maintenance or creation of sound in your voice that help to convey meaning 
    • 8. artifacts: Artifacts are objects often used to communicate information about oneself. Artifacts include clothes, jewelry, trinkets , accessories like handbags, umbrellas, fans, hats, and colors, to express one’s interests, hobbies, status, or lifestyle. With artifacts, one can be distinguished from others demonstrating his or her own taste of life and philosophy. However, different cultures have different interpretations of these artifacts.
  32. What are the 6 guidelines for developing good listening skills?
    • 1. advising: giving specific advice
    • 2. analyzing: an interpretation of the speaker's thoughts
    • 3. paraphrasing: restating a speaker's ideas
    • 4. questioning: asking questions concerning the subject
    • 5. reflecting: paraphrasing a speaker's thoughts and feelings
    • 6. supporting: reassuring or comforting a speaker
  33. What is the uncertainty reduction theory?
    Uncertainty reduction theory states we are uncomfortable with uncertainty and interpersonal relationships, so we use passive, active, and interactive strategies to reduce uncertainty. There are three stages that we go through as we reduce uncertainty: 1. the entry stage, 2. the personal stage, and 3. the exit stage
  34. What is the social penetration theory?
    Social penetration theory proposes that we create and maintain deeper intimacy with another person through mutual self-disclosure. The five stages of social penetration theory are 1. orientation, 2. exploratory effective exchange, 3. affective exchange, 4. stable exchange, and 5 depenetration
  35. What is Knapp's stage model of rational development? Together and apart?
    Together: initiating, experimenting, intensifying, integrating, bonding

    Apart: differentiating, circumscribing, stagnating, avoiding, terminating
  36. define initiating stage
    Initiating stage: when you take the first step to interact with someone you are interested in
  37. Define Experimenting stage
    Experimenting stage: where you engage in conversation about surface level interest and topics with the other person to see if your interest is expanded or not
  38. define Intensifying stage
    Intensifying stage: you invest more time in each other, learn more about a person's history, interests, and goals
  39. define Integrating stage
    Integrating stage: partners begin to develop a sense of an identity for the relationship with each other
  40. define Bonding stage
    Bonding stage: partners make their deep commitment formal and public through an engagement, marriage, or civil union
  41. define Differentiating stage
    Differentiating stage: occurs when the partners begin to separate themselves from each other
  42. define Circumscribing stage
    Circumscribing stage: happens when the partners are primarily living different lives in their conversations are increasingly limited in scope and depth
  43. define Stagnation stage
    Stagnation stage: when couples move into the stagnation stage, they are still a couple, but primarily a name. They are neither moving forward or backward in the relationship but have hit a point when they are not relating on an intimate level
  44. define Avoidance stage
    Avoidance stage: the couple actively avoid interacting with each other so they will not have to face each other
  45. define Terminating stage
    Terminating stage: the final phase of relationship deterioration. Couples and their current relationships and move into a post relationship phrase where they may or may not continue to have contact as separated individuals
Card Set:
COM 113 Exam 1
2015-10-21 19:02:21
Exam one for COM 113
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