8 Psy 101

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Author:
ECCammi
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310000
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8 Psy 101
Updated:
2015-11-01 16:47:39
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psychology
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Notes from pg. 265-273 and class
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  1. Learning
    The acquisition of new knowledge, skills or responses from experience that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner
  2. Habituation
    A general process where repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction in responding
  3. Sensitization
    A simple form of learning that occurs when presentation of a stimulus leads to an increased response to a later stimulus
  4. Classical conditioning
    A type of learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a reponse
  5. Unconditioned stimulus (US)
    Something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism
  6. Unconditioned response
    A reflexive reaction that is reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulus
  7. Why do some dogs seem to know when its dinnertime?
    Because there are CS (conditioned stimulus) that signals to the dog that dinner time is coming soon
  8. Conditioned stimulus (CS)
    A previously neutral stimulus that produces a reliable response in an organism after being paired with a US (unconditioned stimulus)
  9. Conditioned response (CR)
    A reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus
  10. Acquisition
    The phase of classical conditioning when the CS and US are presented together
  11. Second order conditioning
    Conditioning where a CS is paired with a stimulus that became associated with the US in an earlier procedure
  12. Extinction
    The gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the CS is repeatedly presented without the US
  13. Spontaneous recover
    The tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period
  14. Generalization
    The CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the CS used during acquisition
  15. Discrimination
    The capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli
  16. How can a change in a can opener affect a conditioned dog's response?
    The dog will still respond to the slight deviation because of the tendency of generalization
  17. How does conditioned behavior change when the unconditioned stimulus is removed?
    Extinction of the learned response
  18. Why did Albert the child fear the rat?
    Because they introduced the US of a loud startling sound whenever the child approached the rat
    • Ivan Pavlov
    • Received Nobel prize in 1904 for work on digestive system, later used info for psychology
  19. Pavlov's dogs in the holster/harness
  20. Trace and delay conditioning
  21. Before, during and after Pavlovian conditioning
  22. Brain structures important to pavlovian conditioning
  23. Conditioned taste aversions
  24. Brain regions of reinforcement
  25. Conditioned taste aversion is
    Trace conditioning. Associative learning that rats and other animals have evolved to do
  26. Thorndike was the first to
    Use puzzle boxes, he was often called the father of Operant conditioning
  27. What simple idea helped start cognitive psychology?
    In nature animals wouldn't survive if it took dozens of trials to work
  28. Skinners and carpet bombing
    Skinners helped to create an alternative to bombing indiscriminately (carpet bombing) and had a pigeon obsess with a picture of a target, then strap a bomb to the pigeon. Never actually used
  29. Law of effect
    • Positive reinforcement: Stimulus presented to make a behavior more likely
    • Negative reinforcement: Stimulus removed to make a behavior more likely
    • Positive punishment: Stimulus is presented to make a behavior less likely
    • Negative punishment: Stimulus is removed to make a behavior less likely
  30. Brain chemistry of reinforcement
    • Dopamine neurons from VTA send axons into nucleus Accumbens
    • Dopamine release in the Nucleus Accumbens produces perception of reward
  31. Cells in the Ventura Tegmentum (VTA)
    Send signals to the hippocampus, nucleus accummbens, and frontal lobe
  32. Dopamine facilitates
    The ability to consolidate the knowledge of things that happen as consequences
  33. Intracranial self stimulation
    Take an electrode, implant it in an animal's brain and pass a current through to cause an action potential which makes dopamine release
  34. Heth tried to use brain stimulation to treat seizures and narcolepsy
    It didn't work but one group wanted to keep their stimulators because he accidentally tapped into the dopamine neuropathway

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